Krisis minyak 1973 bermula pada Oktober 1973 apabila ahli-ahli Pertubuhan Negara Pengeksport Petroleum Arab mengeluarkan satu embargo minyak. Pemberhentian itu disasarkan kepada negara-negara yang dianggap sebagai menyokong Israel semasa Perang Yom Kippur.[1] Negara-negara awal yang disasarkan ialah Kanada, Jepun, Belanda, United Kingdom dan Amerika Syarikat dengan embargo juga kemudiannya diperluaskan ke Portugal, Rhodesia dan Afrika Selatan. Menjelang akhir embargo pada Mac 1974,[2] harga minyak telah meningkat hampir 400%, dari AS $ 3 setong kepada hampir $ 12 di peringkat global; Harga AS jauh lebih tinggi. Pemberhentian itu menyebabkan krisis minyak, atau "kejutan", dengan banyak kesan jangka pendek dan jangka panjang terhadap politik global dan ekonomi global.[3] Ia kemudiannya dikenali sebagai "kejutan minyak pertama", diikuti oleh krisis minyak 1979, yang disebut sebagai "kejutan minyak kedua".

RujukanSunting

  1. ^ Smith, Charles D. (2006), Palestine and the Arab–Israeli Conflict, New York: Bedford, p. 329.
  2. ^ "OPEC Oil Embargo 1973–1974". U.S. Department of State, Office of the Historian. Diarkib daripada yang asal pada March 6, 2014. Dicapai pada August 30, 2012.
  3. ^ "The price of oil – in context". CBC News. Diarkib daripada yang asal pada June 9, 2007. Dicapai pada May 29, 2007.

Bacaan lanjutSunting

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Pautan luarSunting