Peta menunjukkan peluasan pengaruh Liga Hansa serata Eropah Utara tahun 1400

Liga Hansa (Bahasa Jerman: Deutsche Hanse; Bahasa Belanda: De Hanze; Bahasa Latin: Hansa Teutonica)[1] adalah gabungan kelompok-kelompok saudagar komersial dan pertahanan serta bandar pasar yang pernah wujud serata pantai timur Eropah Tengah. Liga ini lama menguasai perdagangan laut Baltik selama berkurun-kurun lamanya daripada asasnya sebagai gabungan beberapa kota di Jerman Utara pada akhir tahun 1100-an. Gabungan ini menjangkau dari laut Baltik hinggalah ke Laut Utara dan jauh ke darat semasa Akhir Zaman Pertengahan dan merosost secara perlahan-lahan selepas tahun 1450.

Hansa[2] merupakan perkataan bahasa Jerman Tinggi lama merujuk kepada "iringan" yakni kelompok saudagar yang diiring berurusan dagang antara kota-kota daratan atau tepi laut ini.[3]

Gabungan ini dibentuk bagi melindungi kepentingan ekonomi dan keistimewaan diplomatik gencana dalam kota dan negara sokongan mereka serta laluan yang digunakan para saudagar untuk perniagaan mereka. Gabungan ini mempunyai sistem perundangan mereka sendiri serta balatentera untuk tujuan pertolongan dan perlindungan bersama. Walau bagaimanapun, ia tidaklah merupakan sebuah negara yang tersendiri mahupun suatu gabungan negara kota - hanyak segelintir sahaja kota yang mendapat kebebasan dan keistimewaan berautonomi dalam Liga ini yang setaraf dengan kota yang mempunyai perwakilan sendiri dalam sesebuah empayar (kota imperial bebas, free imperial city).[4]

PentadbiranSunting

Kota-kota anggotaSunting

Nama-nama bahagian kuarter disingkat dalam jadual:

  • Wend: kuarter Wend dan Pomerania[5] (atau Wend saja)[6]:120
  • Sachsen: kuarter Sachsen, Thuringen dan Brandenburg[5] (atau Sachsen saja)[6]:120
  • Baltik: kuarter Prusia, Livonia dan Sweden[5] (atau Baltik Timur)[6]:120
  • Westfalen: kuarter Rhein-Westfalen dan Belanda[5] (atau Rheinland)[6]:120
  • Kontor: bukanlah kota anggota Hansa, namun pos dagang asing milik Liga ini.
Kuarter Kota Kawasan Kini dirangkum dalam Tahun masuk Tahunkeluar Notes Rujukan
Wend Lübeck Free City of Lübeck   Jerman Kota pusat liga, kota lingkungan-lingkungan Wend dan Pomerania
Wend Hamburg Free City of Hamburg   Jerman
Wend Lüneburg Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg   Jerman
Wend Wismar Duchy of Mecklenburg   Jerman Joined the 10-year Rostock Peace Treaty (Rostocker Landfrieden) in 1283, which was the predecessor of the federation of Wend towns (1293 onwards).
Wend Rostock Duchy of Mecklenburg   Jerman Menyertai Perjanjian Damai Rostock 1283 selama 10 tahun - ia duluan persekutuan kota Wend (sejak 1293).
Wend Stralsund Principality of Rügen   Jerman &&&&&&&&&&&01293.&&&&&01,293 Rügen was a fief of the Danish crown to 1325. Stralsund joined the 10-year Rostock Peace Treaty in 1283, which was the predecessor of the federation of Wend towns (1293 onwards). Dari 1339 sampailah ke abad ke-17, Stralsund menganggotai Vierstädtebund bersama Greifswald, Demmin dan Anklam.
Wend Demmin Duchy of Pomerania   Jerman Menyertai Perjanjian Damai Rostock 1283 selama 10 tahun - ia duluan persekutuan kota Wend (sejak 1293). Dari 1339 sampailah ke abad ke-17, Demmin menganggotai Vierstädtebund bersama Stralsund, Greifswald dan Anklam.
Wend Greifswald Duchy of Pomerania   Jerman Menyertai Perjanjian Damai Rostock 1283 selama 10 tahun - ia duluan persekutuan kota Wend (sejak 1293). Dari 1339 sampailah ke abad ke-17, Greifswald menganggotai Vierstädtebund bersama Stralsund, Demmin and Anklam.
Wend Anklam Duchy of Pomerania   Jerman Menyertai Perjanjian Damai Rostock 1283 selama 10 tahun - ia duluan persekutuan kota Wend (sejak 1293). Dari 1339 sampailah ke abad ke-17, Anklam menganggotai Vierstädtebund bersama Stralsund, Greifswald and Demmin.
Wend Stettin (Szczecin) Duchy of Pomerania   Poland &&&&&&&&&&&01278.&&&&&01,278 Joined the 10-year Rostock Peace Treaty in 1283, which was the predecessor of the federation of Wend towns (1293 onwards); since the 14th century gradually adopted the role of a chief city for the Pomeranian Hanseatic towns to its east
Wend Pasewalk Duchy of Pomerania   Jerman
Wend Kolberg (Kołobrzeg) Duchy of Pomerania   Poland
Wend Rügenwalde (Darłowo) Duchy of Pomerania   Poland
Wend Stolp (Słupsk) Duchy of Pomerania   Poland
Baltik Visby Kingdom of Sweden   Sweden &&&&&&&&&&&01470.&&&&&01,470 In 1285 at Kalmar, the League agreed with Magnus III, King of Sweden, that Gotland be joined bersama Sweden.[petikan diperlukan] In 1470, Visby's status was rescinded by the League, bersama Lübeck razing the city's churches in May 1525.
Baltik Stockholm Kingdom of Sweden   Sweden
Sachsen Brunswick Duchy of Saxony   Jerman &0000000000001200.000000 13th century &0000000000001600.000000 17th century Capital of the Sachsen, Thuringian and Brandenburg Circle
Sachsen Bremen Free City of Bremen   Jerman &&&&&&&&&&&01260.&&&&&01,260
Sachsen Magdeburg Archbishopric of Magdeburg   Jerman &0000000000001200.000000 13th century Capital of the Sachsen, Thuringian and Brandenburg Circle
Sachsen Goslar Imperial City of Goslar   Jerman &&&&&&&&&&&01267.&&&&&01,267 &&&&&&&&&&&01566.&&&&&01,566 Goslar merupakan fief Saxony sehingga tahun 1280.
Sachsen Erfurt Archbishopric of Mainz   Jerman &&&&&&&&&&&01430.&&&&&01,430
Sachsen Stade Archbishopric of Bremen   Jerman
Sachsen Berlin Margraviate of Brandenburg   Jerman &&&&&&&&&&&01442.&&&&&01,442 Brandenburg was raised to an Electorate in 1356. Elektor Frederick II menyebabkan semua kota Brandenburg keluar dari Liga tahun 1442..
Sachsen Frankfurt an der Oder Margraviate of Brandenburg   Jerman &&&&&&&&&&&01430.&&&&&01,430 &&&&&&&&&&&01442.&&&&&01,442 Elektor Frederick II menyebabkan semua kota Brandenburg keluar dari Liga tahun 1442..
Baltik Gdańsk - Danzig (Gdańsk) Teutonic Order   Poland &&&&&&&&&&&01358.&&&&&01,358 Kota lingkungan-lingkungan Prusia, Livonia dan Sweden (atau Baltik Timur). Danzig had been first a part of the Duci Pomerelia, a fief of the Polish Crown, with Polish-Kashubian population, then part of the State of the Teutonic Order from 1308 sehingga 1457. After the Second Peace of Thorn (1466), Royal Prussia including Gdańsk sebahagian daripada Kerajaan Poland.
Baltik Elbing (Elbląg) Teutonic Order   Poland &&&&&&&&&&&01358.&&&&&01,358 Elbing pada asalnya sebahagian Old Prussians, sehingga 1230-an when it became part of the State of the Teutonic Order. After the Second Peace of Thorn (1466), Royal Prussia, including Elbląg sebahagian daripada Kerajaan Poland.
Baltik Thorn (Toruń) Teutonic Order   Poland &&&&&&&&&&&01280.&&&&&01,280 Toruń sebahagian daripada State of the Teutonic Order from 1233 sehingga 1466. After the Second Peace of Thorn (1466), Royal Prussia, including Toruń, sebahagian daripada Kerajaan Poland.
Baltik Kraków Kingdom of Poland   Poland &&&&&&&&&&&01370.&&&&&01,370 &&&&&&&&&&&01500.&&&&&01,500 Kraków ibukota Kerajaan Poland, 1038–1596/1611. It adopted Magdeburg town law and 5000 Poles and 3500 Germans lived within the city proper in the 15th century; Poles steadily rose in the ranks of guild memberships reaching 41% of guild members in 1500. It was very loosely associated bersama Hansa, and paid no membership fees, nor sent representatives to League meetings.
Baltik Breslau, (Wrocław) Kingdom of Bohemia   Poland &&&&&&&&&&&01387.&&&&&01,387 &&&&&&&&&&&01474.&&&&&01,474 Breslau, a part of the Duci Breslau and the Kerajaan Bohemia, was only loosely connected to the League and paid no membership fees nor did its representatives take part in Hansa meetings
Baltik Königsberg (Kaliningrad) Teutonic Order   Rusia &&&&&&&&&&&01340.&&&&&01,340 Königsberg kota markas Teutonic Order, becoming the capital of Ducal Prussia on the Order's secularisation in 1466. Ducal Prussia was a German principality that was a fief of the Polish crown sehingga gaining its independence in the 1660 Perjanjian Oliva. Kota ini dinamakan semula sebagai Kaliningrad tahun 1946 berikutan pembahagian Prusia Timur antara Republik Rakyat Poland dan Kesatuan Soviet semasa Persidangan Potsdam.
Baltik Riga Terra Mariana (Livonia)   Latvia &&&&&&&&&&&01282.&&&&&01,282 During the Livonian War (1558–83), Riga became a Free imperial city sehingga the 1581 Perjanjian Drohiczyn ceded Livonia to the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth sehingga the city was captured by Sweden in the Polish–Swedish War (1621–1625).
Baltik Reval (Tallinn) Terra Mariana (Livonia)   Estonia &&&&&&&&&&&01285.&&&&&01,285 On joining the Hanseatic League, Reval was a Danish fief, but was sold, bersama the rest of northern Estonia, to the Teutonic Order in 1346. After the Livonian War (1558–83), northern Estonia became a part of the Swedish Empire.
Baltik Dorpat (Tartu) Terra Mariana (Livonia)   Estonia &0000000000001280.000000 1280s The Bishopric of Dorpat gained increasing autonomy within the Terra Mariana. During the Livonian War (1558–83), Dorpat fell under the rule of the Grand Duci Lithuania, with the 1581 Perjanjian Drohiczyn definitively ceding Livonia to the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth sehingga the city was captured by Sweden in the Polish–Swedish War (1621–1625).
Westfalen Cologne Imperial City of Cologne   Jerman &&&&&&&&&&&01669.&&&&&01,669 Capital of the Rhine-Westfalen and Netherlands Circle sehingga after the Anglo-Hanseatic War (1470–74), when the city was prosecuted in 1475 with temporary trade sanctions (Jerman: Verhanst) for some years for having supported England; Dortmund was made capital of the Circle. Cologne also was called "Electorate of Cologne" (German: Kurfürstentum Köln or Kurköln). In June 1669 the last Hanseday was held in the town of Lübeck by the last remaining Hanse members, amongst others Cologne.
Westfalen Dortmund Imperial City of Dortmund   Jerman After Cologne was excluded after the Anglo-Hanseatic War (1470–74), Dortmund was made capital of the Rhine-Westfalen and Netherlands Circle.
Westfalen Deventer Bishopric of Utrecht   Belanda &&&&&&&&&&&01000.&&&&&01,000 &&&&&&&&&&&01500.&&&&&01,500
Westfalen Kampen Bishopric of Utrecht   Belanda &&&&&&&&&&&01441.&&&&&01,441
Westfalen Groningen Friesland   Belanda
Westfalen Münster Prince-Bishopric of Münster   Jerman
Westfalen Osnabrück Prince-Bishopric of Osnabrück   Jerman &0000000000001100.000000 12th century
Westfalen Soest Imperial City of Soest   Jerman &&&&&&&&&&&01609.&&&&&01,609 The city was a part of the Electorate of Cologne sehingga acquiring its freedom in 1444–49, after which it aligned bersama Duci Cleves.

Pelabuhan dengan pejabat berhubungan LigaSunting

Kota lain dengan hubungan Hansa tersendiriSunting


RujukanSunting

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