Manchester City F.C.

Kelab Bola Sepak Manchester City adalah dari liga besar epl Liga Perdana Inggeris. Kelab ini ditubuhkan pada tahun 1880 dengan dikenali sebagai St. Mark's (West Gorton) yang kemudiannya dinamakan semula sebagai ia menjadi Kelab Bola Sepak Persatuan Ardwick pada tahun 1887 dan Manchester City pada tahun 1894. Stadium Bandar Raya Manchester adalah stadium halaman utama mereka di Manchester timur yang bermula pada tahun 2003 setelah menjadikan Maine Road sebagai stadium utama asal mereka sejak tahun 1923.

Manchester City
Nama penuhManchester City Football Club
GelaranCitizens, Sky Blues, City
Nama pendekMCFC, Man City
Diasaskan1880; 144 tahun yang lalu (1880) as St. Mark's (West Gorton)
16 April 1894; 130 tahun yang lalu (1894-04-16) as Manchester City[1]
StadiumCity of Manchester Stadium
(Kapasiti: 55,017[2])
PemilikCity Football Group
PengerusiKhaldoon Al Mubarak
PengurusPep Guardiola
LigaLiga Perdana Inggeris
2022-23Liga Perdana Inggeris, No.1 daripada 20 (Juara)
Tapak sesawangLaman kelab
Warna tuan rumah
Warna tempat lawan
Warna ketiga
Musim semasa

Manchester City telah memasuki Liga Kejohanan Bola Sepak Inggeris pada tahun 1899 dan memenangi kejuaraan pertama mereka Piala FA pada tahun 1904. Mereka menempuh tempoh kejayaan besar pada akhir 1960-an dengan memenangi Liga, Piala FA dan Piala Liga di bawah pengurusan Joe Mercer dan Malcolm Allison. Setelah kalah dalam Perlawanan Akhir Piala FA 1981, kelab tersebut mengalami tempoh kejatuhan yang menyebabkan mereka tersingkir ke peringkat ketiga dalam bola sepak Inggeris menjelang akhir musim 1997-98. Mereka memperoleh kenaikan ke peringkat teratas pada 2001-02 dan masih kekal dalam Liga Perdana sejak 2002-03. Pada tahun 2008, Manchester City telah dibeli oleh Kumpulan Kesatuan Abu Dhabi yang berjumlah £210 juta dan menerima pelaburan kewangan yang besar.

Kelab tersebut telah memenangi enam gelaran liga domestik. Di bawah pengurusan Pep Guardiola, mereka memenangi Liga Perdana pada 2018 dan menjadi satu-satunya pasukan Liga Perdana yang berjaya mencapai 100 mata dalam satu musim. Pada tahun 2019, mereka memenangi empat trofi dan menyempurnakan semua trofi domestik di England dan menjadi pasukan lelaki Inggeris pertama yang memenangi treble domestik.[3] Pendapatan Manchester City adalah antara kelima tertinggi daripada kelab bola sepak di dunia pada musim 2018-19 dengan jumlah pendapatannya sebanyak €568.4 juta.[4] Pada tahun 2019, Forbes menganggarkan kelab tersebut adalah kelima paling bernilai di dunia yang bernilai $2.69 bilion[5] namun penjualan 10% kepentingan dalam syarikat induk kelab City Football Group pada 27 November 2019 untuk $500 juta nilai mereka jauh lebih tinggi.[6]

Sejarah sunting

St. Marks (Gorton) in 1884 – the reason for the cross pattée on the shirts is now unknown[7]

City gained their first honours by winning the Second Division in 1899; with it came promotion to the highest level in English football, the First Division. They went on to claim their first major honour on 23 April 1904, beating Bolton Wanderers 1–0 at Crystal Palace to win the FA Cup; City narrowly missed out on a League and Cup double that season after finishing runners-up in the League but City became the first club in Manchester to win a major honour.[8] In the seasons following the FA Cup triumph, the club was dogged by allegations of financial irregularities, culminating in the suspension of seventeen players in 1906, including captain Billy Meredith, who subsequently moved across town to Manchester United.[9] A fire at Hyde Road destroyed the main stand in 1920, and in 1923 the club moved to their new purpose-built stadium at Maine Road in Moss Side.[10]

The Manchester City team which won the FA Cup in 1904

In the 1930s, Manchester City reached two consecutive FA Cup finals, losing to Everton in 1933, before claiming the Cup by beating Portsmouth in 1934.[11] During the 1934 cup run, Manchester City broke the record for the highest home attendance of any club in English football history, as 84,569 fans packed Maine Road for a sixth round FA Cup tie against Stoke City in 1934 – a record which still stands to this day.[12] The club won the First Division title for the first time in 1937, but were relegated the following season, despite scoring more goals than any other team in the division.[13] Twenty years later, a City team inspired by a tactical system known as the Revie Plan reached consecutive FA Cup finals again, in 1955 and 1956; just as in the 1930s, they lost the first one, to Newcastle United, and won the second. The 1956 final, in which Manchester City beat Birmingham City 3–1, saw City goalkeeper Bert Trautmann continuing to play on after unknowingly breaking his neck.[14]

After being relegated to the Second Division in 1963, the future looked bleak with a record low home attendance of 8,015 against Swindon Town in January 1965.[15] In the summer of 1965, the management team of Joe Mercer and Malcolm Allison was appointed. In the first season under Mercer, City won the Second Division title and made important signings in Mike Summerbee and Colin Bell.[16] Two seasons later, in 1967–68, Manchester City claimed the League Championship for the second time, clinching the title on the final day of the season with a 4–3 win at Newcastle United and beating their close neighbours Manchester United into second place.[17] Further trophies followed: City won the FA Cup in 1969, before achieving European success by winning the European Cup Winners' Cup in 1970, beating Górnik Zabrze 2–1 in Vienna.[18] City also won the League Cup that season, becoming the second English team to win a European trophy and a domestic trophy in the same season.

The club continued to challenge for honours throughout the 1970s, finishing one point behind the league champions on two occasions and reaching the final of the 1974 League Cup.[19] One of the matches from this period that is most fondly remembered by supporters of Manchester City is the final match of the 1973–74 season against arch-rivals Manchester United, who needed to win to have any hope of avoiding relegation. Former United player Denis Law scored with a backheel to give City a 1–0 win at Old Trafford and confirm the relegation of their rivals.[20][21] The final trophy of the club's most successful period to date was won in 1976, when Newcastle United were beaten 2–1 in the League Cup final.

Chart of yearly table positions of City in the Football League.

A long period of decline followed the success of the 1960s and 1970s. Malcolm Allison rejoined the club to become manager for the second time in 1979, but squandered large sums of money on unsuccessful signings, such as Steve Daley.[22] A succession of managers then followed – seven in the 1980s alone. Under John Bond, City reached the 1981 FA Cup final but lost in a replay to Tottenham Hotspur. The club were twice relegated from the top flight in the 1980s (in 1983 and 1987), but returned to the top flight again in 1989 and finished fifth in 1991 and 1992 under the management of Peter Reid.[23] However, this was only a temporary respite, and following Reid's departure Manchester City's fortunes continued to fade. City were co-founders of the Premier League upon its creation in 1992, but after finishing ninth in its first season they endured three seasons of struggle before being relegated in 1996. After two seasons in Division One, City fell to the lowest point in their history, becoming the second ever European trophy winners to be relegated to their country's third league tier, after 1. FC Magdeburg of Germany.

After relegation, the club underwent off-the-field upheaval, with new chairman David Bernstein introducing greater fiscal discipline.[24] Under manager Joe Royle, City were promoted at the first attempt, achieved in dramatic fashion in a play-off against Gillingham. A second successive promotion saw City return to the top division, but this proved to have been a step too far for the recovering club, and in 2001 City were relegated once more. Kevin Keegan replaced Royle as manager in the close season, and achieved an immediate return to the top division as the club won the 2001–02 Division One championship, breaking club records for the number of points gained and goals scored in a season in the process.[25] The 2002–03 season was the last at Maine Road, and included a 3–1 derby victory over rivals Manchester United, ending a run of 13 years without a derby win.[26] City also qualified for European competition for the first time in 25 years. In the 2003 close season, the club moved to the new City of Manchester Stadium. The first four seasons at the stadium all resulted in mid-table finishes. Former England manager Sven-Göran Eriksson became the club's first manager from overseas when appointed in 2007.[27] After a bright start, performances faded in the second half of the season, and Eriksson was sacked in June 2008.[28] Eriksson was replaced by Mark Hughes two days later on 4 June 2008.[29]

By 2008, the club was in a financially precarious position. Thaksin Shinawatra had taken control of the club a year before, but his political travails saw his assets frozen.[30] Then, in August 2008, the club was purchased by the Abu Dhabi United Group. The takeover was immediately followed by a flurry of bids for high-profile players; the club broke the British transfer record by signing Brazilian international Robinho from Real Madrid for £32.5 million.[31] There wasn't a huge improvement in performance compared to the previous season despite the influx of money however, with the team finishing tenth, although they did well to reach the quarter-finals of the UEFA Cup. During the summer of 2009, the club took transfer spending to an unprecedented level, with an outlay of over £100 million on players Gareth Barry, Roque Santa Cruz, Kolo Touré, Emmanuel Adebayor, Carlos Tevez and Joleon Lescott.[32] In December 2009, Mark Hughes – who had been hired shortly before the change in ownership but was originally retained by the new board – was replaced as manager by Roberto Mancini.[33] City finished the season in fifth position in the Premier League, narrowly missing out on a place in the Champions League, and competed in the UEFA Europa League in season 2010–11.[34]

Manchester City supporters invade the pitch following their 2011–12 Premier League title win.

Continued investment in players followed in successive seasons, and results began to match the upturn in player quality. City reached the 2011 FA Cup Final, their first major final in over 30 years, after defeating derby rivals Manchester United in the semi-final,[35] the first time they had knocked their rival out of a cup competition since 1975. They defeated Stoke City 1–0 in the final, securing their fifth FA Cup, the club's first major trophy since winning the 1976 League Cup. In the same week, the club qualified for the UEFA Champions League for the first time since 1968 with a 1–0 Premier League win over Tottenham Hotspur.[36] On the last day of the 2010–11 season, City beat out Arsenal for third place in the Premier League, thereby securing qualification directly into the Champions League group stage.[37]

Manchester City moved into their new complex at the Etihad Campus adjacent to the City of Manchester Stadium in 2014.

Strong performances continued to follow in the 2011–12 season, with the club beginning the following season in commanding form, including beating Tottenham 5–1 at White Hart Lane and humbling Manchester United by a 6–1 scoreline in United's own stadium. Although the strong form waned halfway through the season, and City at one point fell eight points behind their arch rivals with only six games left to play, a slump by United allowed the blue side of Manchester to draw back level with two games to go, setting up a thrilling finale to the season with both teams going into the last day equal on points. Despite City only needing a home win against a team in the relegation zone, they fell a goal behind by the end of normal time, leading some of United's players to finish their game celebrating in the belief that they had won the league. Two goals in injury time – including one scored almost five minutes after normal time had elapsed – resulted in an almost-literal last-minute title victory, City's first in 44 years, and became only the fifth team to win the Premier League since its creation in 1992. In the aftermath that followed, the event was described by media sources from the UK and around the world as the greatest moment in Premier League history.[38][39] The game was also notable for former player Joey Barton's sending off, where he committed three separate red card-able incidents on three different players in the space of only a couple of seconds, resulting in a 12-match ban.[40]

The following season City failed to capitalise on the gains made in the first two full seasons of Mancini's reign. While City rarely seemed likely to drop below second in the table, they posed little title challenge all season. In the Champions League, the club was eliminated at the group stage for a second successive season, while a second FA Cup final in three seasons ended in a 1–0 defeat to relegated Wigan Athletic.[41] Mancini was dismissed two days later, ostensibly as he had failed to reach his targets for the season,[42] but BBC Sports Editor David Bond reported he had been sacked for his poor communication and relationships with players and executives.[43] In his place was appointed the Chilean Manuel Pellegrini.[44]

In Pellegrini's first season, City won the League Cup[45] and regained the Premier League title on the last day of the season.[46] However, City's league form was less impressive in the next couple of years and by 2016 they were finishing in their lowest position since 2010. Pellegrini's reign was ended despite a further League Cup win; and the club's best ever finish in the Champions League.[47]

Pep Guardiola, former manager of Barcelona and Bayern Munich, is the current manager, who has been in charge since the dismissal of Pellegrini in 2016.[48] Under Guardiola, Manchester City won the 2017–18 Premier League title with the highest points total in Premier League history and broke numerous other club and English league records along the way.[49] They also won the EFL Cup that year and Sergio Agüero became the club's all time leading goalscorer.[50]

Guardiola then guided the club in 2018–19 to retain their Premier League and EFL Cup titles; the first time in Manchester City's history that the club had completed any successful title defence. The team then went on to also win the FA Cup and so complete an unprecedented treble of English domestic men's titles.[51] On 14 February 2020, the club were banned from all UEFA club competitions for the 2020–21 and 2021–22 seasons and fined €30 million by the UEFA Club Financial Control Body due to breaches of the UEFA Financial Fair Play Regulations.[52] However, the decision is pending appeal by Manchester City to the Court of Arbitration for Sport.[53]

League history sunting

L1 = Level 1 of the football league system; L2 = Level 2 of the football league system; L3 = Level 3 of the football league system.

Club badge and colours sunting

Manchester City's stadium and shirt have been sponsored by Etihad Airways since 2009.

Manchester City's home colours are sky blue and white. Traditional away kit colours have been either maroon or (from the 1960s) red and black; however, in recent years several different colours have been used. The origins of the club's home colours are unclear, but there is evidence that the club has worn blue since 1892 or earlier. A booklet entitled Famous Football Clubs – Manchester City published in the 1940s indicates that West Gorton (St. Marks) originally played in scarlet and black, and reports dating from 1884 describe the team wearing black jerseys bearing a white cross, showing the club's origins as a church side.[54] The red and black away colours used infrequently yet recurrently come from former assistant manager Malcolm Allison, who believed that adopting the colours of A.C. Milan would inspire City to glory.[55] Allison's theory worked, with City winning the 1969 FA Cup Final, 1970 League Cup Final and the 1970 European Cup Winners' Cup Final in red and black stripes as opposed to the club's home kit of sky blue.

City have previously worn three other badges on their shirts, prior to their current badge which was implemented in 2016. The first, introduced in 1970, was based on designs which had been used on official club documentation since the mid-1960s. It consisted of a circular badge which used the same shield as the current badge, inside a circle bearing the name of the club. In 1972, this was replaced by a variation which replaced the lower half of the shield with the red rose of Lancashire.

On occasions when Manchester City played in a major cup final, the club wore shirts bearing a badge of the arms of the City of Manchester, as a symbol of pride in representing the city at a major event. This practice originated from a time when the players' shirts did not normally bear a badge of any kind.[56] The club has since abandoned the practice; for the 2011 FA Cup Final, its first in the 21st century, City used the usual badge with a special legend, but the Manchester coat of arms was included as a small monochrome logo in the numbers on the back of players' shirts.[57]

A new club badge was adopted in 1997, as a result of the previous badge being ineligible for registration as a trademark. This badge was based on the arms of the city of Manchester, and consisted of a shield in front of a golden eagle. The eagle is an old heraldic symbol of the city of Manchester; a golden eagle was added to the city's badge in 1958 (but has since been removed), representing the growing aviation industry. The shield features a ship on its upper half representing the Manchester Ship Canal, and three diagonal stripes in the lower half symbolise the city's three rivers – the Irwell, the Irk and the Medlock. The bottom of the badge bears the motto "Superbia in Proelio", which translates as "Pride in Battle" in Latin. Above the eagle and shield are three stars, which are purely decorative.

On 15 October 2015, following years of criticism from the fans over the design of the 1997 badge,[58] the club announced they intended to carry out a fan consultation on whether to disregard the club badge and institute a new design.[58] After the consultation, the club announced in late November 2015 the current club badge would be replaced in due course by a new version which would be designed in the style of the older, circular variants.[59] A design purporting to be the new badge was unintentionally leaked two days early prior to the official unveiling on 26 December 2015 by the IPO when the design was trademarked on 22 December.[60] The new design was officially unveiled at the club's home match on 26 December against Sunderland.[61]

Kit suppliers and shirt sponsors sunting

Period Kit supplier Shirt sponsor (chest) Shirt sponsor (sleeve)
1974–1982 Umbro No sponsor No sponsor
1982–1984 Saab
1984–1987 Philips
1987–1997 Brother
1997–1999 Kappa
1999–2002 Le Coq Sportif Eidos
2002–2003 First Advice
2003–2004 Reebok
2004–2007 Thomas Cook
2007–2009 Le Coq Sportif
2009–2013 Umbro Etihad Airways
2013–2017 Nike
2017–2019 Nexen Tire
2019– Puma

Kit deals sunting

Kit supplier Period Announcement date Intended contract duration Value Notes
4 June 2009
2009–2019 (10 years) Around £2.5m per year[62] Umbro contract transferred to parent company Nike in 2013
4 May 2012
2013–2019 (6 years) Around £20m per year[63]
28 February 2019
July 2019 – July 2029 (10 years) Around £65m per year[64]

Players sunting

Manchester City players before a UEFA Champions League match in 2017. (Top row, left to right: Ederson, Walker, De Bruyne, Fernandinho, Stones, Otamendi. Bottom row, left to right: Agüero, Sané, David Silva, Fabian Delph (no longer at club), Jesus)

Current squad sunting

Sehingga 25 January 2020[65]

Note: Bendera menunjukkan pasukan kebangsaan seperti yang ditakrifkan di bawah peraturan kelayakan FIFA. Pemain boleh memegang lebih daripada satu kewarganegaraan bukan FIFA.

No. Pos. Negara Pemain
1 GK   Claudio Bravo
2 DF   Kyle Walker
5 DF   John Stones
7 MF   Raheem Sterling
8 MF   İlkay Gündoğan
9 FW   Erling Braut Emmer
10 FW   Sergio Agüero
11 MF   Oleksandr Zinchenko
14 DF   Aymeric Laporte
16 MF   Rodrigo
17 MF   Kevin De Bruyne (third-captain)
19 MF   Leroy Sané
No. Pos. Negara Pemain
20 MF   Bernardo Silva
21 MF   David Silva (captain)
DF   Benjamin Mendy
25 MF   Fernandinho (vice-captain)
26 MF   Riyad Mahrez
27 DF   João Cancelo
30 DF   Nicolás Otamendi
31 GK   Ederson
33 GK   Scott Carson (on loan from Derby County)
47 MF   Phil Foden
50 DF   Eric García

Out on loan sunting

The following players have previously made a league or cup appearance for Manchester City and are currently on loan at other teams:

Note: Bendera menunjukkan pasukan kebangsaan seperti yang ditakrifkan di bawah peraturan kelayakan FIFA. Pemain boleh memegang lebih daripada satu kewarganegaraan bukan FIFA.

No. Pos. Negara Pemain
12 DF   Angeliño (at RB Leipzig until 30 June 2020)
24 DF   Tosin Adarabioyo (at Blackburn Rovers until 30 June 2020)[66]
34 DF   Philippe Sandler (at Anderlecht until 30 June 2020)
43 FW   Lukas Nmecha (at Middlesbrough until 30 June 2020)
No. Pos. Negara Pemain
49 GK   Arijanet Muric (at Nottingham Forest until 30 June 2020)[67]
75 MF   Aleix García (at Royal Excel Mouscron until 30 June 2020)[66]
81 MF   Claudio Gomes (at PSV Eindhoven until 30 June 2020)[68]
MF   Patrick Roberts (at Middlesbrough until 30 June 2020)

Other players with first-team appearances sunting

Note: Bendera menunjukkan pasukan kebangsaan seperti yang ditakrifkan di bawah peraturan kelayakan FIFA. Pemain boleh memegang lebih daripada satu kewarganegaraan bukan FIFA.

No. Pos. Negara Pemain
61 MF   Felix Nmecha [69]
69 MF   Tommy Doyle
No. Pos. Negara Pemain
78 DF   Taylor Harwood-Bellis
82 MF   Adrián Bernabé [70]

Retired numbers sunting

Since 2003, Manchester City have not issued the squad number 23. It was retired in memory of Marc-Vivien Foé, who was on loan to the club from Lyon at the time of his death on the field of play while playing for Cameroon in the 2003 FIFA Confederations Cup.[71]

Note: Bendera menunjukkan pasukan kebangsaan seperti yang ditakrifkan di bawah peraturan kelayakan FIFA. Pemain boleh memegang lebih daripada satu kewarganegaraan bukan FIFA.

No. Pos. Negara Pemain
23 MF   Marc-Vivien Foé (2002–03) – posthumous honour)

Player of the Year sunting

Year Winner
1985–86   Kenny Clements
1986–87   Neil McNab
1987–88   Steve Redmond
1988–89   Neil McNab
1989–90   Colin Hendry
1990–91   Niall Quinn
1991–92   Tony Coton
1992–93   Garry Flitcroft
1993–94   Tony Coton
1994–95   Uwe Rösler
Year Winner
1995–96   Georgi Kinkladze
1996–97   Georgi Kinkladze
1997–98   Michael Brown
1998–99   Gerard Wiekens
1999–2000   Shaun Goater
2000–01   Danny Tiatto
2001–02   Ali Benarbia
2002–03   Sylvain Distin
2003–04   Shaun Wright-Phillips
2004–05   Richard Dunne
Year Winner
2005–06   Richard Dunne
2006–07   Richard Dunne
2007–08   Richard Dunne
2008–09   Stephen Ireland
2009–10   Carlos Tevez
2010–11   Vincent Kompany
2011–12   Sergio Agüero
2012–13   Pablo Zabaleta
2013–14   Yaya Touré
2014–15   Sergio Agüero
Year Winner
2015–16   Kevin De Bruyne
2016–17   David Silva
2017–18   Kevin De Bruyne
2018–19   Bernardo Silva


Halls of Fame sunting

Manchester City Hall of Fame sunting

The following former Manchester City players and managers are inductees in the Manchester City F.C. Hall of Fame, and are listed according to the year of their induction:

National Football Museum Hall of Fame sunting

The following former Manchester City players and managers are inductees in the English Football Hall of Fame (a.k.a. the National Football Museum Hall of Fame) and are listed according to the year of their induction within the various categories:

Kemas kini terakhir: 11 November 2018.
Rujukan: About the Football Hall of Fame

Scottish Football Museum Hall of Fame sunting

The following former Manchester City players and managers are inductees in the Scottish Football Hall of Fame (a.k.a. the Scottish Football Museum Hall of Fame) and are listed according to the year of their induction within the various categories:

Kemas kini terakhir: 30 March 2011.
Rujukan: list of SFM Hall of Fame inductees

Welsh Sports Hall of Fame sunting

The following former Manchester City players are inductees in the Welsh Sports Hall of Fame and are listed according to the year of their induction:

Non-playing staff sunting

Chairman Khaldoon Al Mubarak

Corporate hierarchy sunting

Position Name
Chairman   Khaldoon Al Mubarak
Director   Ruigang Li
Chief Executive Officer   Ferran Soriano
Global Technical Director of the City Football Group   Rodolfo Borrell
non-executive director   Mohamed Al Mazrouei
non-executive director   Simon Pearce
non-executive director   John Macbeath
non-executive director   Marty Edelman
non-executive director   Alberto Galassi
managing director of the City Football Academy   Brian Marwood

Management hierarchy sunting

Current City manager Pep Guardiola
Position Name
Director of Football   Txiki Begiristain
Head Coach   Pep Guardiola
Assistant Coach   Brian Kidd
Assistant Coach   Rodolfo Borrell
Goalkeeping coach   Xabier Mancisidor
Head of Academy   Jason Wilcox
Under-21 EDS manager   Paul Harsley
Under-21 GK coach   Andy Mulliner
Under-18 Academy Team Manager   Gareth Taylor
Under-18 Academy Assistant Manager   John Mullin
Under-18 GK coach   Richard Wright
Chief scout   Carlo Cancellieri

Notable managers sunting

Manchester City managers to have won major honours. Table correct as of 2 February 2020[82][83]
Name From To Games Wins Draws Loss Win % Honours
1902 1906 &&&&&&&&&&&&0150.&&&&&0150 &&&&&&&&&&&&&089.&&&&&089 &&&&&&&&&&&&&022.&&&&&022 &&&&&&&&&&&&&039.&&&&&039 &&&&&&&&&&&&&059.33000059.33 1904 FA Cup
1932 1946 &&&&&&&&&&&&0352.&&&&&0352 &&&&&&&&&&&&0158.&&&&&0158 &&&&&&&&&&&&&071.&&&&&071 &&&&&&&&&&&&0123.&&&&&0123 &&&&&&&&&&&&&044.89000044.89 1934 FA Cup
1936–37 First Division
1950 1963 &&&&&&&&&&&&0592.&&&&&0592 &&&&&&&&&&&&0220.&&&&&0220 &&&&&&&&&&&&0127.&&&&&0127 &&&&&&&&&&&&0245.&&&&&0245 &&&&&&&&&&&&&037.16000037.16 1956 FA Cup
1965 1971 &&&&&&&&&&&&0340.&&&&&0340 &&&&&&&&&&&&0149.&&&&&0149 &&&&&&&&&&&&&094.&&&&&094 &&&&&&&&&&&&&097.&&&&&097 &&&&&&&&&&&&&043.82000043.82 1967–68 First Division
1969 FA Cup
1970 European Cup Winners' Cup
1970 League Cup
1973 1980 &&&&&&&&&&&&0269.&&&&&0269 &&&&&&&&&&&&0114.&&&&&0114 &&&&&&&&&&&&&075.&&&&&075 &&&&&&&&&&&&&080.&&&&&080 &&&&&&&&&&&&&042.38000042.38 1976 League Cup
2009 2013 &&&&&&&&&&&&0191.&&&&&0191 &&&&&&&&&&&&0113.&&&&&0113 &&&&&&&&&&&&&038.&&&&&038 &&&&&&&&&&&&&040.&&&&&040 &&&&&&&&&&&&&059.16000059.16 2011 FA Cup
2011–12 Premier League
2012 FA Community Shield
2013 2016 &&&&&&&&&&&&0167.&&&&&0167 &&&&&&&&&&&&0100.&&&&&0100 &&&&&&&&&&&&&028.&&&&&028 &&&&&&&&&&&&&039.&&&&&039 &&&&&&&&&&&&&059.88000059.88 2014 League Cup
2013–14 Premier League
2016 League Cup
2016 Incumbent &&&&&&&&&&&&0213.&&&&&0213 &&&&&&&&&&&&0153.&&&&&0153 &&&&&&&&&&&&&030.&&&&&030 &&&&&&&&&&&&&030.&&&&&030 &&&&&&&&&&&&&071.83000071.83 2018 League Cup
2017–18 Premier League
2018 FA Community Shield
2019 League Cup
2018–19 Premier League
2019 FA Cup
2019 FA Community Shield

Supporters sunting

Since moving to the City of Manchester Stadium, Manchester City's average attendances have been in the top six in England,[84] usually in excess of 40,000. Even in the late 1990s, when the club were relegated twice in three seasons and playing in the third tier of English football (then Division Two, now Football League One), home attendances were in the region of 30,000, compared to an average for the division of fewer than 8,000.[85] Research carried out by Manchester City in 2005 estimates a fanbase of 886,000 in the United Kingdom and a total in excess of 2 million worldwide, although since the purchase of the club by Sheikh Mansour and the club's recent trophies, that figure has ballooned to many times that size.[86]

Manchester City's officially recognised supporters club is the Manchester City F.C. Supporters Club (1949), formed from a merger of two existing organisations in 2010: the Official Supporters Club (OSC) and the Centenary Supporters Association (CSA).[87] There have been several fanzines published by supporters; the longest running is King of the Kippax and it is the only one still published.[88] The City fans' song of choice is a rendition of "Blue Moon", which despite its melancholic theme is belted out with gusto as though it were a heroic anthem. City supporters tend to believe that unpredictability is an inherent trait of their team, and label unexpected results "typical City".[89][90] Events that fans regard as "typical City" include City's being the only reigning English champions ever to be relegated (in 1938), the only team to score and concede over 100 goals in the same season (1957–58),[91] or the more recent example that City were the only team to beat Chelsea in the 2004–05 Premier League, yet in the same season City were knocked out of the FA Cup by Oldham Athletic, a team two divisions lower.

Manchester City's biggest rivalry is with neighbours Manchester United, against whom they contest the Manchester derby. Before the Second World War, when travel to away games was rare, many Mancunian football fans regularly watched both teams even if considering themselves "supporters" of only one. This practice continued into the early 1960s but as travel became easier, and the cost of entry to matches rose, watching both teams became unusual and the rivalry intensified. A common stereotype is that City fans come from Manchester proper, while United fans come from elsewhere. A 2002 report by a researcher at Manchester Metropolitan University found that while it was true that a higher proportion of City season ticket holders came from Manchester postcode areas (40% compared to United's 29%), there were more United season ticket holders, the lower percentage being due to United's higher overall number of season ticket holders (27,667 compared to City's 16,481). The report noted that since the compiling of data in 2001, the number of both City and United season ticket holders had risen; expansion of United's ground and City's move to the City of Manchester Stadium have caused season ticket sales to increase further.[92] Man City also has a very notable rivalry with that of Liverpool F.C.[93]

In the late 1980s, City fans started a craze of bringing inflatable objects to matches, primarily oversized bananas. One disputed explanation for the craze is that in a match against West Bromwich Albion chants from fans calling for the introduction of Imre Varadi as a substitute mutated into "Imre Banana". Terraces packed with inflatable-waving supporters became a frequent sight in the 1988–89 season as the craze spread to other clubs (inflatable fish were seen at Grimsby Town), with the phenomenon reaching a peak at City's match at Stoke City on 26 December 1988, a match declared by fanzines as a fancy dress party.[94] In 2010, City supporters adopted an exuberant dance, dubbed The Poznań, from fans of Polish club Lech Poznań.[95]

Ownership and finances sunting

The holding company of Manchester City F.C., Manchester City Limited, is a private limited company, with approximately 54 million shares in issue. The club has been in private hands since 2007, when the major shareholders agreed to sell their holdings to UK Sports Investments Limited (UKSIL), a company controlled by former Thailand prime minister Thaksin Shinawatra. UKSIL then made a formal offer to buy the shares held by several thousand small shareholders.

Prior to the Thaksin takeover, the club was listed on the specialist independent equity market PLUS (formerly OFEX),[96] where it had been listed since 1995. On 6 July 2007, having acquired 75% of the shares, Thaksin de-listed the club and re-registered it as a private company.[97] By August UKSIL had acquired over 90% of the shares, and exercised its rights under the Companies Act to "squeeze out" the remaining shareholders, and acquire the entire shareholding. Thaksin Shinawatra became chairman of the club and two of Thaksin's children, Pintongta and Oak Chinnawat also became directors. Former chairman John Wardle stayed on the board for a year, but resigned in July 2008 following Nike executive Garry Cook's appointment as executive chairman in May.[98] The club made a pre-tax loss of £11m in the year ending 31 May 2007, the final year for which accounts were published as a public company.[99]

Thaksin's purchase prompted a period of transfer spending at the club,[100] spending in around £30 million,[101] whereas over the previous few seasons net spending had been among the lowest in the division. A year later, this investment was itself dwarfed by larger sums. On 1 September 2008, Abu Dhabi-based Abu Dhabi United Group Investment and Development Limited completed a takeover of Manchester City. The deal, worth a reported £200 million, was announced on the morning of 1 September. It sparked various transfer "deadline-day" rumours and bids such as the club's attempt to gazump Manchester United's protracted bid to sign Dimitar Berbatov from Tottenham Hotspur for a fee in excess of £30 million.[102][103] Minutes before the transfer window closed, the club signed Robinho from Real Madrid for a British record transfer fee of £32.5 million.[104] The wealth of the new owners meant that in the summer of 2009, the club was able to finance the purchase of several experienced international players prior to the new season, spending more than any other club in the Premier League.[105]

City Football Group sunting

Created in the 2013–14 season to manage the global footballing interests of Abu Dhabi United Group, the City Football Group (CFG) is an umbrella corporation owning stakes in a network of global clubs for the purposes of resource sharing, academy networking and marketing. Through the City Football Group, City owns stakes in a number of clubs:

On 23 January 2014 it was announced that Manchester City had partnered with the Australian rugby league franchise Melbourne Storm, purchasing a majority stake in A-League team Melbourne City FC. On 5 August 2015, CFG bought out the Storm and acquired full ownership of the team.[107]
On 20 May 2014 it was announced that Manchester City had partnered with the Japanese Automotive company Nissan to become a minority shareholder in Yokohama based J-League side, Yokohama F. Marinos.
On 21 May 2013 it was announced that Manchester City had partnered with the American baseball franchise the New York Yankees to introduce the 20th Major League Soccer expansion team, New York City FC as its majority shareholder. The club began play in the 2015 Major League Soccer season.
On 5 April 2017, CFG confirmed the purchase of Uruguayan second division team Club Atlético Torque.
On 23 August 2017 it was announced that the City Football Group had acquired 44.3% of Segunda División side Girona FC. Another 44.3% was held by the Girona Football Group, led by Pere Guardiola, brother of Manchester City manager Pep Guardiola.
City Football Group was announced as majority stakeholder of Mumbai City on Thursday 28 November 2019 after acquiring 65% of the club. Mumbai City FC is the professional football club based in Mumbai, competing in the Indian Super League.

Stadium sunting

City of Manchester Stadium – the home of Manchester City since 2003

The City of Manchester Stadium in east Manchester, known as the Etihad Stadium since 2011 for sponsorship reasons, is on a 200-year lease from Manchester City Council. It has been City's home since the end of the 2002–03 season, when the club moved from Maine Road.[113] Before moving to the stadium, Manchester City spent in excess of £30 million to convert it to football use. The pitch was lowered, adding another tier of seating around it, and a new North Stand built.[114] The inaugural match at the new stadium was a 2–1 win over Barcelona in a friendly match.[115] A 7,000-seat third tier on the South Stand was completed in time for the start of the 2015–16 football season. Current capacity stands at 55,097. A North Stand third tier has planning approval and work on it is expected to begin by 2017, increasing capacity to around 61,000.[116]

After playing home matches at five stadiums between 1880 and 1887, the club settled at Hyde Road Football Stadium, its home for 36 years.[117] A fire destroyed the Main Stand in 1920, and the club moved to the 84,000 capacity Maine Road three years later. Maine Road, nicknamed the "Wembley of the North" by its designers, hosted the largest-ever crowd at an English club ground when 84,569 attended an FA Cup tie against Stoke City on 3 March 1934.[118] Though Maine Road was redeveloped several times over its 80-year lifespan, by 1995 its capacity was restricted to 32,000, prompting the search for a new ground which culminated in the move to the City of Manchester Stadium in 2003.

Honours sunting

Based on trophy count, Manchester City are one of the most successful teams in England - their twenty-five major domestic and European honours make them the fifth most decorated side in England.

The club's first major trophy was the 1904 FA Cup,[119] though they had previously won three Manchester Cups before that point.[120] Their first top division league title came in the 1936–37 season,[7] with the first Community Shield won in the following August.[7] Their first League Cup and European trophy both came at the end of the 1969–70 season, the two trophies also constituting their first trophy double.[7] In 2018–19 Manchester City became the first team to claim all of the major English trophies available in a single season, winning not just the Premier League, FA Cup and League Cup but also the Community Shield.[121]

Manchester City jointly hold the record for most second division titles with Leicester City, both clubs having won the league on seven occasions.[122] Their first victory was in 1898–99, and the most recent in 2001–02.[7]

Domestic sunting

Leagues sunting

Cups sunting

European sunting

Doubles and Trebles sunting

Club records sunting

UEFA club coefficient ranking sunting

Sehingga 30 August 2019 [134]
Rank Team Points
4   Bayern Munich 104.000
5   Juventus 99.000
6   Manchester City 95.000
7   Paris Saint-Germain 86.000
8   Liverpool 85.000

See also sunting

Bibliography sunting

  • Buckley, Andy; Burgess, Richard (2000). Blue Moon Rising: The Fall and Rise of Manchester City. Bury: Milo. ISBN 0-9530847-4-4.
  • Gardner, Peter (1970). The Manchester City Football Book No. 2. London: Stanley Paul. ISBN 0-09-103280-6.
  • Inglis, Simon (1987). The Football Grounds of Great Britain (2nd ed.). London: Collins Willow. ISBN 0-00-218249-1.
  • James, Gary (2002). Manchester: The Greatest City. Polar Publishing. ISBN 1-899538-09-7.
  • James, Gary (2005). The Official Manchester City Hall of Fame. Hamlyn. ISBN 0-600-61282-1.
  • James, Gary (2006). Manchester City – The Complete Record. Derby: Breedon. ISBN 1-85983-512-0.
  • James, Gary (2008). Manchester – A Football History. Halifax: James Ward. ISBN 978-0-9558127-0-5.
  • Penney, Ian (2008). Manchester City: The Mercer-Allison Years. Derby: Breedon. ISBN 978-1-85983-608-8.
  • Rowlands, Alan (2005). Trautmann: The Biography. Derby: Breedon. ISBN 1-85983-491-4.
  • Tossell, David (2008). Big Mal: The High Life and Hard Times of Malcolm Allison, Football Legend. Edinburgh: Mainstream. ISBN 978-1-84596-478-8.
  • Wallace, David (2007). Century City – Manchester City Football Club 1957/58. Leigh: King of the Kippax. ISBN 978-0-9557056-0-1.
  • Ward, Andrew (1984). The Manchester City Story. Derby: Breedon. ISBN 0-907969-05-4.

References sunting

  1. ^ On 16 April 1894, the name was changed to Manchester City.
  2. ^ "Premier League Handbook 2018–19". Premier League. 30 Julai 2018. Dicapai pada 3 Januari 2019.
  3. ^ Bullin, Matt (18 Mei 2019). "Man City win treble – how impressive is that achievement?". BBC Sport. Dicapai pada 18 Mei 2019.
  4. ^ "Deloitte Football Money League 2019". Deloitte. Januari 2019. Dicapai pada 14 Oktober 2019.
  5. ^ Ozanian, Mike. "The Business Of Soccer". Forbes. Dicapai pada 30 Mei 2019.
  6. ^ "Manchester City investment from US breaks global sports valuation". BBC News. 27 November 2019. Dicapai pada 27 November 2019.
  7. ^ a b c d e "Club History – The Club – Manchester City FC". Dicapai pada 9 September 2010.
  8. ^ James, Manchester City – The Complete Record, p32
  9. ^ James, Manchester:The Greatest City, pp 59–65.
  10. ^ Bevan, Chris (11 Mei 2003). "Maine Road through the ages". BBC Sport. Dicapai pada 10 September 2011.
  11. ^ Ward, The Manchester City Story, pp. 31–33
  12. ^ James, Gary (22 April 2011). "FA Cup special: Thrills, spills and a cast of thousands at Maine Road". Diarkibkan daripada yang asal pada 12 November 2012. Dicapai pada 23 April 2011.
  13. ^ "England 1937/38". league table from RSSSF. Dicapai pada 29 Disember 2005.
  14. ^ Rowlands, Trautmann – The Biography, pp. 178–184
  15. ^ Ward, The Manchester City Story, p. 57
  16. ^ Penney, Manchester City – The Mercer-Allison Years, pp. 27–36
  17. ^ Penney, Manchester City – The Mercer-Allison Years, pp. 37–56
  18. ^ Gardner, The Manchester City Football Book No. 2, pp. 13–22
  19. ^ James, Manchester City – The Complete Record, pp. 410–420
  20. ^ Other results meant United would have been relegated even if they had won or drawn, but neither team knew this at the time.
  21. ^ Ward, The Manchester City Story, p. 70
  22. ^ Tossell, Big Mal, Chapter 18
  23. ^ James, Manchester City – The Complete Record, p. 68
  24. ^ Buckley, Andy; Burgess, Richard (2000). Blue Moon Rising: The Fall and Rise of Manchester City. Bury: Milo. ISBN 0-9530847-4-4. p. 177
  25. ^ Manchester City – The Complete Record, p. 265
  26. ^ "Goater double gives City derby win". RTÉ. Diarkibkan daripada yang asal pada 19 Disember 2007. Dicapai pada 28 Mei 2007.
  27. ^ "Eriksson named Man City manager". BBC Sport. 6 Julai 2007. Dicapai pada 20 Julai 2007.
  28. ^ "Eriksson's reign at Man City ends". BBC Sport. 2 Jun 2008. Dicapai pada 2 Jun 2008.
  29. ^ "Manchester City appoint Mark Hughes". Manchester City F.C. 4 Jun 2008. Diarkibkan daripada yang asal pada 20 April 2017. Dicapai pada 21 Oktober 2009.
  30. ^ Winrow, Ian (12 Ogos 2008). "Thaksin Shinawatra's crisis ends Manchester City's European dream". Daily Telegraph. London. Dicapai pada 4 September 2010.
  31. ^ "Man City beat Chelsea to Robinho". BBC. 1 September 2008. Dicapai pada 19 September 2009.
  32. ^ "Lescott completes Man City move". BBC Sport. 25 Ogos 2009. Dicapai pada 12 September 2009.
  33. ^ "Mark Hughes sacked as Man City appoint Mancini manager". BBC Sport. 19 Disember 2009. Dicapai pada 19 Disember 2009.
  34. ^ "2009/10 Season Review". Premier League. 25 Mei 2018. Dicapai pada 7 Oktober 2019.
  35. ^ "Man City 1 – 0 Man Utd". BBC Sport. 16 April 2011.
  36. ^ "Man City 1 – 0 Tottenham". BBC Sport. 10 Mei 2011. Dicapai pada 10 Mei 2011.
  37. ^ "City slickers clinch third place". Sky Sports. 22 Mei 2011. Dicapai pada 7 Oktober 2019.
  38. ^ "Is Man City's title win really the best Premier League moment ever? See the Top 50 here.. and then tell us yours". Daily Mirror. London. 9 Ogos 2012. Dicapai pada 7 Oktober 2013.
  39. ^ "Reconstructing The Most Exciting Day in the History of Soccer (And Maybe Sports, Period)". 16 Mei 2012. Dicapai pada 7 Oktober 2013.
  40. ^ Jackson, Jamie (23 Mei 2012). "Joey Barton given unprecedented 12-game ban by FA for violent conduct". The Guardian.
  41. ^ "FA Cup final: Manchester City 0-1 Wigan Athletic". BBC Sport. 11 Mei 2013.
  42. ^ "Roberto Mancini: Manchester City sack manager". BBC Sport. 14 Mei 2013. Dicapai pada 19 April 2017.
  43. ^ "Roberto Mancini: Man City exit because of poor relationships". BBC Sport. 14 Mei 2013. Dicapai pada 7 Oktober 2013.
  44. ^ "Manuel Pellegrini: Manchester City appoint Chilean as manager". BBC Sport. 12 Jun 2013. Dicapai pada 7 Oktober 2013.
  45. ^ O'Rourke, Pete (2 Mac 2014). "Capital One Cup final: Manchester City win Capital One Cup after beating Sunderland 3–1". Sky Sports News. Dicapai pada 11 Mei 2014.
  46. ^ "Manchester City crowned Premier League champions with 2–0 victory over West Ham". Sky Sports. 11 Mei 2014. Dicapai pada 11 Mei 2014.
  47. ^ Steinberg, Jacob (23 November 2018). "Manuel Pellegrini stands tall despite looming shadow of Pep Guardiola". The Guardian. Dicapai pada 21 Mei 2019.
  48. ^ Smith, Johnathan (13 Mei 2018). "Man City smash 11 Premier League records". ESPN. Dicapai pada 24 Jun 2018.
  49. ^ "Which records have Man City broken in 2017/18?". Dicapai pada 21 Mei 2019.
  50. ^ James, Stuart (November 2017). "Sergio Agüero enters Manchester City record books after helping sink Napoli". The Guardian. Dicapai pada 21 Mei 2019.
  51. ^ Bullin, Matt (18 Mei 2019). "Man City win treble – how impressive is that achievement?". Dicapai pada 21 Mei 2019.
  52. ^ "Club Financial Control Body Adjudicatory Chamber decision on Manchester City Football Club". Union of European Football Associations. 14 Februari 2020. Dicapai pada 14 Februari 2020.
  53. ^ "Club statement". Manchester City F.C. 14 Februari 2020. Dicapai pada 14 Februari 2020.
  54. ^ James, Manchester: The Greatest City pp. 14–15
  55. ^ Turner, Georgina (23 November 2005). "Nicking the shirts off their backs". The Guardian. London. Dicapai pada 18 Disember 2006.
  56. ^ David Clayton, Everything Under the Blue Moon (Mainstream Publishing, 2002), 21
  57. ^ "Manchester City History". Dicapai pada 19 April 2017.
  58. ^ a b "City's New Badge is Here!". 2 Julai 2016. Diarkibkan daripada yang asal pada 20 April 2017. Dicapai pada 19 April 2017.
  59. ^ "Manchester City to design new badge following consultation with fans". The Guardian. 24 November 2015. Dicapai pada 19 April 2017.
  60. ^ "Manchester City's new club badge design leaked online". BBC News. 24 Disember 2015. Dicapai pada 24 Disember 2015.
  61. ^ McVeigh, Niall (26 Disember 2015). "Manchester City unveil new club crest before home game against Sunderland". The Guardian. Dicapai pada 26 Disember 2015.
  62. ^ "Man City sign Umbro deal". The Business Desk. 4 Jun 2009. Dicapai pada 1 Oktober 2019.
  63. ^ Manchester City sign new 10-year kit deal with Puma worth £650 million
  64. ^ Manchester City replaces Nike with Puma in kit deal
  65. ^ "Squads: Mens' team". Manchester City F.C. Dicapai pada 3 Julai 2019.
  66. ^ a b "Man City give five young players debuts in FA Cup game at Chelsea". ESPN FC. 21 Februari 2016. Dicapai pada 24 Ogos 2016.
  67. ^ "Man City squad numbers for 2017/18 season". Manchester City F.C. Dicapai pada 23 Julai 2018.
  68. ^ Bevan, Chris. "Community Shield: Chelsea 0–2 Manchester City – Sergio Aguero scores twice". BBC Sport. Dicapai pada 5 Ogos 2018.
  69. ^ "Burton v Man City". BBC Sport. Dicapai pada 23 Januari 2019.
  70. ^ David Clayton (25 September 2018). "Oxford United v Manchester City Match Report". Manchester City F.C. Dicapai pada 22 Oktober 2018.
  71. ^ "Man City retire number 23 shirt". BBC Sport. 27 Jun 2003. Dicapai pada 22 Julai 2018.
  72. ^ "50 YEARS OF MCFC PLAYER OF THE YEAR: PART 1". Dicapai pada 12 Julai 2017.
  73. ^ "50 YEARS OF MCFC PLAYER OF THE YEAR: PART 2". Dicapai pada 12 Julai 2017.
  74. ^ "50 YEARS OF MCFC PLAYER OF THE YEAR: PART 3". Dicapai pada 12 Julai 2017.
  75. ^ "50 YEARS OF MCFC PLAYER OF THE YEAR: PART 4". Dicapai pada 12 Julai 2017.
  76. ^ "50 YEARS OF MCFC PLAYER OF THE YEAR: PART 5". Dicapai pada 12 Julai 2017.
  77. ^ "Starting line-up inducted into City Hall of Fame". Manchester Evening News. 23 Januari 2004. Diarkibkan daripada yang asal pada 12 November 2012. Dicapai pada 30 Mac 2011.
  78. ^ "King Ken collects plaudits". Manchester Evening News. 9 Februari 2005. Diarkibkan daripada yang asal pada 24 Mei 2011. Dicapai pada 30 Mac 2011.
  79. ^ "City legends honoured". Manchester Evening News. 22 Februari 2006. Diarkibkan daripada yang asal pada 12 November 2012. Dicapai pada 30 Mac 2011.
  80. ^ "Academy honoured at Hall of Fame". (Manchester City Football Club). 6 Mac 2008. Diarkibkan daripada yang asal pada 20 April 2017. Dicapai pada 19 April 2017.
  81. ^ "City Greats go into Hall of Fame". (Manchester City Football Club). 16 September 2009. Dicapai pada 19 April 2017.
  82. ^ The following managers have all won at least one major trophy (excluding Community Shields) with Manchester City (totals include competitive matches only)
  83. ^ "Managers". Dicapai pada 29 Mac 2006.
  84. ^ "Top 30 English Football Clubs by League Attendances". attendance table 2002–2005. Dicapai pada 30 Disember 2005.
  85. ^ "Average Attendances – English Football Divisions – 1994/95–2004/05". division attendance table 1995–2005. Dicapai pada 30 Disember 2005.
  86. ^ "Customer Success – Manchester City Football Club". Hewlett-Packard case study. Diarkibkan daripada yang asal pada 25 November 2005. Dicapai pada 4 April 2007. ( mirror)
  87. ^ "About MCFC Supporters Club". MCFC Supporters Club. Diarkibkan daripada yang asal pada 30 Oktober 2016. Dicapai pada 19 April 2017.
  88. ^ "King of the Kippax fanzine". Diarkibkan daripada yang asal pada 8 Julai 2011. Dicapai pada 13 Mac 2010.
  89. ^ "FA Cup preview". ESPN Star article. Diarkibkan daripada yang asal pada 19 Disember 2007. Dicapai pada 24 September 2009. ( mirror)
  90. ^ "Typical City!". Unofficial supporters homepage. Diarkibkan daripada yang asal pada 11 Januari 2006. Dicapai pada 25 Mac 2006.
  91. ^ Wallace, Dave (2007). Century City – Manchester City Football Club 1957/58. Leigh: King of the Kippax. ISBN 978-0-9557056-0-1. page ix
  92. ^ "Do You Come From Manchester?" (PDF). Manchester Metropolitan University study. Diarkibkan daripada yang asal (PDF) pada 27 Februari 2008. Dicapai pada 9 Januari 2008.
  93. ^ Malyan, Christy (6 Oktober 2018). "Eleven moments that made Liverpool-Manchester City the biggest rivalry in English football". Football Fancast.
  94. ^ "The Inflatables Craze". Manchester City Football Club Supporters' Homepage. Diarkibkan daripada yang asal pada 23 April 1999. Dicapai pada 30 Disember 2005.
  95. ^ Pitt-Brooke, Jack (20 April 2011). "Poles apart: how fans of Poznan inspired City's unlikely dance craze". The Independent. London. Dicapai pada 7 November 2011.
  96. ^ "Manchester City plc". PLUS Markets Group. Diarkibkan daripada yang asal pada 5 Februari 2007. Dicapai pada 30 April 2007.
  97. ^ "Thaksin completes Man City buyout". BBC News. 6 Julai 2007. Dicapai pada 6 Julai 2007.
  98. ^ Taylor, Daniel (10 April 2009). "Wardle quits City". The Guardian. UK. Dicapai pada 28 Ogos 2008.
  99. ^ "Manchester City's losses trebled under Thaksin Shinawatra". The Telegraph. 10 April 2009. Dicapai pada 19 April 2017.
  100. ^ "Eriksson continues Man City spending". Reuters. 2 Ogos 2007. Dicapai pada 13 Januari 2008.
  101. ^ "Bojinov joins Man City". FIFA. Diarkibkan daripada yang asal pada 21 Ogos 2007. Dicapai pada 13 Januari 2008.
  102. ^ Montague, James (1 September 2008). "Manchester City's new owners put national pride before profit". The Guardian. UK. Dicapai pada 1 April 2011.
  103. ^ "City Takeover Confirmed". Sky Sports. Dicapai pada 9 Januari 2008.
  104. ^ "Man City beat Chelsea to Robinho". (Manchester City Football Club). 1 September 2008. Dicapai pada 19 April 2017.
  105. ^ "English Transfer Window Ends With Man City As Biggest Spenders". Dicapai pada 2 September 2009.
  106. ^ "The resources and power of Sheikh Mansoor makes this deal a seismic moment for the A-League". Herald Sun. 23 Januari 2014. Dicapai pada 23 Januari 2014.
  107. ^ John Stensholt (2 Ogos 2015). "Manchester City buy out wealthy Melbourne City investors". Australian Financial Review. Dicapai pada 5 Ogos 2015.
  108. ^ "Manchester City Pre-Season Tour 2016" (PDF). Dicapai pada 19 April 2017.
  109. ^ "New Soccer Team Introduces a Director of Operations". New York Times. 22 Mei 2013. Dicapai pada 22 Mei 2013.
  110. ^ "CFG Extends South American Footprint". Manchester City Official Website. 5 April 2017. Diarkibkan daripada yang asal pada 21 Mei 2017. Dicapai pada 5 April 2017.
  111. ^ "Manchester City's parent company seals deal for major stake in Girona". The Guardian. 23 Ogos 2017. Dicapai pada 24 Ogos 2017.
  112. ^ "CFG acquires majority stake in Indian Super League's Mumbai City FC". City Football Group. City Football Group. Dicapai pada 28 November 2019.
  113. ^ Bailey, Chris (8 November 2006). "Why Blues must cash in on name game". Manchester Evening News. Diarkibkan daripada yang asal pada 14 Oktober 2009. Dicapai pada 22 April 2008.
  114. ^ James, Manchester: A Football History, p391.
  115. ^ "Man City vanquish Barca". BBC article. 10 Ogos 2003. Dicapai pada 28 Disember 2005.
  116. ^ "Manchester City seek stadium expansion to hold 61,000". Manchester: BBC News. 11 Oktober 2013. Dicapai pada 29 Disember 2013.
  117. ^ Inglis, The Football Grounds of Great Britain, p62
  118. ^ "Club History". Manchester City F.C. Dicapai pada 19 April 2017.
  119. ^ "1904 Manchester City". Match report at Diarkibkan daripada yang asal pada 20 Julai 2009. Dicapai pada 23 September 2009.
  120. ^ "10 things you need to know about the Manchester clubs' humble beginnings". FourFourTwo. 31 Oktober 2014. Dicapai pada 14 Oktober 2019.
  121. ^ "Man City win treble - how impressive is that achievement?". BBC Sport. 18 Mei 2019. Dicapai pada 14 Oktober 2019.
  122. ^ "England - List of Second Division Champions". RSSSF. Dicapai pada 14 Oktober 2019.
  123. ^ a b c Up until 1992, the top division of English football was the Football League First Division; since then, it has been the FA Premier League. At the same time, the Second Division was renamed the First Division, and the Third Division was renamed the Second Division.
  124. ^ a b James, Manchester City – The Complete Record, p. 509
  125. ^ a b James, Manchester City – The Complete Record, p. 511
  126. ^ "Manchester City 7–0 Schalke: Champions League at a glance". UEFA. 12 Mac 2019. Dicapai pada 7 Oktober 2019.
  127. ^ "Manchester City FC". UEFA. Dicapai pada 7 Oktober 2019.
  128. ^ James, Manchester City – The Complete Record, p524
  129. ^ a b James, Manchester City – The Complete Record, p. 155
  130. ^ "Sergio Agüero". Manchester City F.C. Diarkibkan daripada yang asal pada 16 Februari 2018. Dicapai pada 17 Februari 2018.
  131. ^ Clayton, Everything Under the Blue Moon, p. 112.
  132. ^ Wilson, Paul; Jackson, Jamie (4 Julai 2019). "City's new £62.8m signing Rodri says Manchester may be getting 'more blue'". The Guardian. Dicapai pada 7 Oktober 2019.
  133. ^ "Joao Cancelo: Man City complete deal for Juventus full-back as Danilo moves other way". BBC Sport. 7 Ogos 2019.
  134. ^ "Member associations – UEFA Coefficients – Club coefficients". UEFA.

Pautan luar sunting

Templat:Wikinews category

Templat:Abu Dhabi United Group