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Metodologi ialah analisis teori dan sistematik kaedah yang digunakan untuk bidang pengajian. Ia terdiri daripada analisis teoritis mengenai kaedah dan prinsip yang berkaitan dengan cawangan pengetahuan. Biasanya, ia merangkumi konsep seperti paradigma, model teori, fasa dan teknik kuantitatif atau kualitatif.[1]

Metodologi tidak ditetapkan untuk memberikan penyelesaian-oleh itu, tidak sama dengan kaedah. Sebaliknya, metodologi menawarkan asas teori untuk memahami kaedah, set kaedah, atau amalan terbaik yang boleh digunakan untuk kes tertentu, contohnya, untuk mengira hasil tertentu.

Ia telah ditakrifkan juga seperti berikut:

  1. " analisis prinsip-prinsip kaedah, kaedah, dan postulat yang digunakan oleh suatu disiplin";[2]
  2. "kajian sistematik kaedah yang boleh, atau telah digunakan dalam suatu disiplin";[2]
  3. "kajian atau perihalan kaedah".[3]

RujukanSunting

  1. ^ Irny, S.I. and Rose, A.A. (2005) “Designing a Strategic Information Systems Planning Methodology for Malaysian Institutes of Higher Learning (isp- ipta), Issues in Information System, Volume VI, No. 1, 2005.
  2. ^ a b Methodology Usage Notes, entry at Merriam–Webster
  3. ^ Baskerville, R. (1991). "Risk Analysis as a Source of Professional Knowledge". Computers & Security. 10 (8): 749–764. 

Bacaan lanjutSunting

  • Berg, Bruce L., 2009, Qualitative Research Methods for the Social Sciences. Seventh Edition. Boston MA: Pearson Education Inc.
  • Creswell, J. (1998). Qualitative inquiry and research design: Choosing among five traditions. Thousand Oaks, California: Sage Publications.
  • Creswell, J. (2003). Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Methods Approaches. Thousand Oaks, California: Sage Publications.
  • Franklin, M.I. (2012). Understanding Research: Coping with the Quantitative-Qualitative Divide. London and New York: Routledge.
  • Guba, E. and Lincoln, Y. (1989). Fourth Generation Evaluation. Newbury Park, California: Sage Publications.
  • Herrman, C. S. (2009). “Fundamentals of Methodology”, a series of papers On the Social Science Research Network (SSRN), online.
  • Howell, K. E. (2013) Introduction to the Philosophy of Methodology. London: Sage Publications.
  • Ndira, E. Alana, Slater, T. and Bucknam, A. (2011). Action Research for Business, Nonprofit, and Public Administration - A Tool for Complex Times . Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
  • Joubish, Farooq Dr. (2009). Educational Research Department of Education, Federal Urdu University, Karachi, Pakistan
  • Patton, M. Q. (2002). Qualitative research & evaluation methods (3rd edition). Thousand Oaks, California: Sage Publications.
  • Silverman, David (Ed). (2011). Qualitative Research: Issues of Theory, Method and Practice, Third Edition. London, Thousand Oaks, New Delhi, Singapore: Sage Publications
  • Soeters, Joseph; Shields, Patricia and Rietjens, Sebastiaan. 2014. Handbook of Research Methods in Military Studies New York: Routledge.
  • Webster's New International Dictionary of the English Language, Second Edition, Unabridged, W. A. Neilson, T. A. Knott, P. W. Carhart (eds.), G. & C. Merriam Company, Springfield, MA, 1950.A, 1950.

Pautan luarSunting