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Nikolai II dari Rusia

Czar of Russia
(Dilencongkan dari Nikolay II dari Rusia)

Nikolai II (Bahasa Rusia: Николай II, Николай Александрович Романов, tr. Nikolay II, Nikolay Alexandrovich Romanov [nʲɪkɐˈlaj ftɐˈroj, nʲɪkɐˈlaj əlʲɪkˈsandrəvʲɪʨ rɐˈmanəf]) (18 Mei [G.L.: 6 Mei] 1868 – 17 Julai 1918) adalah Tsar terakhir Rusia, Putera Besar Finland, dan pemerintah pada nama Poland.[2] Gelaran rasmi baginda adalah Nikolai II, Maharaja dan Autokrat ke atas Rusia[3]; malah baginda kini dianggap sebagai Santo Nicholas si Pembawa Derita oleh Gereja Ortodoks Rusia.

Nicholas II
Nicolas II photographie couleur.jpg
Maharaja dan Autokrat ke atas Rusia
Pemerintahan1 November [G.L.: 20 Oktober] 1894 – 15 Mac 1917
Kemahkotaan26 Mei [G.L.: 14 Mei] 1896[1]
Didahului olehAleksandr III
Diikuti olehTakhta dibubarkan
De facto :
Georgy Lvov (pengerusi kerajaan sementara)
PemakamanKatedral Pyotr dan Pavel, Saint Petersburg, Persekutuan Rusia
PasanganAlix dari Hesse
AnakandaGrand Duchess Olga Nikolaevna
Grand Duchess Tatiana Nikolaevna
Grand Duchess Maria Nikolaevna
Grand Duchess Anastasia Nikolaevna
Tsarevich Alexei Nikolaevich
KerabatKerabat Holstein-Gottorp-Romanov
AyahandaAleksandr III dari Rusia
BondaMaria Feodorovna
(Dagmar dari Denmark)
TandatanganTandatangan Nicholas II

RujukanSunting

  1. ^ Ralat petik: Tag <ref> tidak sah; teks bagi rujukan ReferenceB tidak disediakan
  2. ^ In 1831, the Russian tsars were deposed from the Polish throne, but they soon took control of the country as part of Russia and abolished the separate monarchy. However, they continued to use this title. See November Uprising.
  3. ^ Gelaran penuh baginda ialaj Beta, Nikolai Kedua, dengan rahmat Tuhan, Maharaja dan Autokrat segala Russia, Moscow, Kiev, Vladimir, Novgorod, Tsar Kazan, Tsar Astrakhan, Raja Poland, Tsar Siberia, Tsar Tauric Chersonesos, Tsar of Georgia, Tuan Pskov, Velikiy Kniaz ("Raja Besar") Smolensk, Lithuania, Volhynia, Podolia dan Finland, Putera Estonia, Livonia, Courland dan Semigalia, Samogitia, Belostok, Karelia, Tver, Yugra, Perm, Vyatka, Bulgaria, dan kawasan lain; Tuan dan Kniaz Besar Nizhny Novgorod, Chernigov; Tuan Ryazan, Polotsk, Rostov, Yaroslavl, Beloozero, Udoria, Obdoria, Kondia, Vitebsk, Mstislav [disambiguation needed], and all the northern territories; and Sovereign of Iveria, Kartalinia, dan tanah-tanah Kabard serta kawasan Armenia; Tuan dan Raja Pewaris Circassia and Mountain Princes and others; Tuan Turkestan, Pewaris Norway, Herzog Schleswig-Holstein, Stormarn, Dithmarschen, Oldenburg dan sebagainya.

Bacaan lanjutSunting

  • The Sokolov Report, in Victor Alexandrov, "The End of The Romanovs", London: 1966
  • Boris Antonov, Russian Czars, St.Petersburg, Ivan Fiodorov Art Publishers (ISBN 5-93893-109-6)
  • Michael M. Baden, Chapter III: Time of Death and Changes after Death. Part 4: Exhumation, In: Spitz, W.U. & Spitz, D.J. (eds): Spitz and Fisher’s Medicolegal Investigation of Death. Guideline for the Application of Pathology to Crime Investigations (Fourth edition). Charles C. Thomas, pp.: 174-183, Springfield, Illinois: 2006
  • Paul Grabbe, "The Private World of the Last Czar" New York: 1985
  • Ferro, Marc, Nicholas II: Last of the Czars. New York: Oxford University Press (USA), 1993 (hardcover, ISBN 0-19-508192-7); 1995 (paperback, ISBN 0-19-509382-8)
  • Genrikh Ioffe, Revoliutsiia i sud'ba Romanovykh Moscow: Respublika, 1992 (Rusia)
  • Coryne Hall & John Van der Kiste, Once A Grand Duchess : Xenia, Sister of Nicholas II, Phoenix Mill, Sutton Publishing Ltd., 2002 (hardcover, ISBN 0-7509-2749-6)
  • Greg King, The Court of the Last Czar: Pomp, Power and Pageantry in the Reign of Nicholas II 2006
  • Greg King and Penny Wilson, "The Fate of the Romanovs" 2003
  • Dominic Lieven, Nicholas II: Emperor of All the Russias. 1993.
  • Andrei Maylunas and Sergei Mironenko, A Lifelong Passion: Nicholas & Alexandra 1999
  • Marvin Lyons, Nicholas II The Last Czar, London, Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1974 (hardcover, ISBN 0710078021)
  • Shay McNeal, "The Secret Plot to Save the Czar" 2001
  • Robert K. Massie, Nicholas and Alexandra 1967
  • Robert K. Massie, The Romanovs. The Final Chapter 1995, ISBN 0394580486
  • Bernard Pares, "The Fall of the Russian Monarchy" London: 1939, reprint London: 1988
  • John Perry [disambiguation needed] and Konstantin Pleshakov, The Flight of the Romanovs. 1999.
  • Edvard Radzinsky, The Last Tsar: The Life and Death of Nicholas II (1992) ISBN 0-385-42371-3
  • Mark D. Steinberg and Vladimir M. Khrustalev, The Fall of the Romanovs: Political Dreams and Personal Struggles in a Time of Revolution, New Haven: Yale University Press, 1995.
  • Anthony Summers and Tom Mangold, The File on the Czar. 1976.
  • Richard Tames, Last of the Czars, London, Pan Books Ltd, 1972
  • Andrew M. Verner, The Crisis of the Russian Autocracy: Nicholas II and the 1905 Revolution 1990
  • Ian Vorres, The Last Grand Duchess, London, Finedawn Publishers, 1985 (hardcover)
  • Richard Wortman, Scenarios of Power: Myth and Ceremony in Russian Monarchy, vol. 2 2000
  • Prince Felix Yussupov, Lost Splendour
  • Elisabeth Heresch, "Nikolaus II. Feigheit, Lüge und Verrat". F.A.Herbig Verlagsbuchhandlung, München, 1992
  • The Complete Wartime Correspondence of Czar Nicholas II and the Empress Alexandra, April 1914 – March 1917. Edited by Joseph T. Furhmann Fuhrmann. Westport, Conn. and London: 1999
  • Letters of Czar Nicholas and Empress Marie Ed. Edward J. Bing. London: 1937
  • Letters of the Czar to the Czaritsa, 1914–1917 Trans. from Russian translations from the original English. E. L. Hynes. London and New York: 1929.
  • Nicky-Sunny Letters: correspondence of the Czar and Czaritsa, 1914–1917. Hattiesburg, Miss: 1970.
  • The Secret Letters of the Last Czar: Being the Confidential Correspondence between Nicholas II and his Mother, Dowager Empress Maria Feodorovna. Ed. Edward J. Bing. New York and Toronto: 1938
  • Willy-Nicky Correspondence: Being the Secret and Intimate Telegrams Exchanged Between the Kaiser and the Czar. Ed. Herman Bernstein. New York: 1917.
  • Paul Benckendorff, Last Days at Czarskoe Selo. London: 1927
  • Sophie Buxhoeveden, The Life and Tragedy of Alexandra Fedorovna, Empress of Russia: A Biography London: 1928
  • Pierre Gilliard, Thirteen Years at the Russian Court New York: 1921
  • A. A. Mossolov (Mosolov), At the Court of the Last Czar London: 1935
  • Anna Vyrubova, Memories of the Russian Court London: 1923
  • A.Yarmolinsky, editor, "The Memoirs of Count Witte" New York & Toronto: 1921
  • Sir George Buchanan (British Ambassador) My Mission to Russia & Other Diplomatic Memories (2 vols, Cassell, 1923)
  • Meriel Buchanan, Dissolution of an Empire, Cassell, 1932
  • Gleb Botkin, The Real Romanovs, Fleming H. Revell Co, 1931
  • Mark D. Steinberg and Vladimir M. Khrustalev, The Fall of the Romanovs: Political Dreams and Personal Struggles in a Time of Revolution. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1995
  • "The Personality Of The Czar: An Explanation, By A Russian Official Of High Authority". The World's Work: A History of Our Time. VIII: 5414–5430. 1904.  Parameter |month= tidak diketahui diabaikan (bantuan); pautan luar dalam |title= (bantuan);

Pautan luarSunting

Nikolai II dari Rusia
Cabang kadet bagi Kerabat Oldenburg
Tarikh keputeraan: 18 Mei 1868 Tarikh kemangkatan: 17 Julai 1918
Gelaran pemerintah
Didahului oleh
Alexander III
Tsar Rusia
1 November 1894 – 15 Mac 1917
Dibubarkan
Pembubaran monarki
Duke Besar Finland
1 November 1894 – 15 Mac 1917
Kosong
  Gelaran dipegang kemudian oleh  
Putera Frederick Charles dari Hesse
Kerabat diraja Rusia
Didahului oleh
Alexander III dari Rusia
Pewaris takhta Rusia
1881–1894
Diikuti oleh:
George dari Rusia
Gelaran dakwaan
Gelaran Baru
Empayar dibubarkan
* TIDAK MEMERINTAH *
Tsar Rusia
(15 Mac 1917 – 17 Julai 1918)
* Alasan untuk Kegagalan Pewarisan: *
Empayar dibubarkan pada tahun 1917 
Diikuti oleh:
Cyril Vladimirovich

Templat:Russian emperors

Templat:Russian Revolution 1917 Templat:Pretenders to the Russian throne since 1917 Templat:Lists of Russians