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Ogham - disebut [o-gĕm] / [ˈɒɡəm][4] atau [o-ĕm]/[ˈoːəmˠ] - ialah sebuah sistem tulisan abjad yang pernah digunakan untuk menulis bahasa Ireland kuno dari seawal abad ke-4 hingga abad ke-9. Ia ditemui pada peninggalan bertulis yang banyak ditemui serata Ireland dan barat Britain sekitar 400 buah; terutamanya di selatan Munster[5] dan Pembrokeshire, Wales.[6]

Ogham
᚛ᚑᚌᚐᚋ᚜
Ogham Stone Rathass Church Tralee Kerry.jpg
Suatu batu bertulis ditemui tahun 1975 di Ratass Church, Tralee, Kaunti Kerry
Jenis
Bahasabahasa Ireland Primitif;
bahasa Ireland; bahasa Pict[1][2][3]
Tempoh masa
sekitar abad ke-4 hingga ke abad ke–10
PengarahanTemplat:ISO 15924 direction
ISO 15924Ogam, 212
Alias Unicode
Templat:ISO 15924 alias
U+1680–U+169F

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Siri abjad ogham asal terdiri daripada 20 aksara khusus (feda), setiap satu daripadanya disusun kepada kesamaan bentuk dalam kelompok tertentu dipanggil aicme. Setiap aicme di


 
 
The twenty standard letters of the Ogham alphabet and the five forfeda. The box on the left shows the consonants, and the box on the right shows the vowels (both non-IPA). The letter labelled IA (Ifín) earlier had the value of p. An additional (secondary) letter p is shown as 26th character (peith). This is the vertical writing of Ogham; in the horizontal form, the right side would face downward.
Aicme Beithe - kelompok B, seranjang ke kanan atau bawah
  1. B beith [b] (*betwi-s)
  2. L luis [l] (*lubsti-)
  3. F fearn [w] (*wernā)
  4. S saille [s] (*salik-s)
  5. N nuin [n]
Aicme hÚatha - kelompok H, seranjang ke kiri atau atas
  1. H úath [j] (*osato-)
  2. D duir [d] (*darek-s)
  3. T tinne [t]
  4. C coll [k] (*koslas)
  5. Q ceirt [kʷ] (*kʷer[x]tā)
Aicme Muine - kelompok M, merentas dan menyerong
  1. M muin [m]
  2. G gort [ɡ] (*gorto-s)
  3. NG gétal [ɡʷ] (*gʷēdtlo-)
  4. Z straif [sw] or [ts]?
  5. R ruis [r] (*rudsti-)
Aicme Ailme - kelompok A, merentas dan seranjang
  1. A ailm [a]
  2. O onn [o] (*osno-)
  3. U úr [u]
  4. E edad [e]
  5. I idad [i]

Lima huruf tambahan - forfeda - diperkenalkan kemudian sebagai mewakili bentuk diftong.

RujukanSunting

  1. ^ "Ogham alphabet". 
  2. ^ "BabelStone: The Ogham Stones of Scotland". 8 Jun 2013. 
  3. ^ https://www.era.lib.ed.ac.uk/bitstream/handle/1842/9863/Padel1972_FULL.pdf;sequence=1
  4. ^ Templat:OED
  5. ^ McManus (1991) is aware of a total of 382 orthodox inscriptions. The later scholastic inscriptions have no definite endpoint and continue into the Middle Irish and even Modern Irish periods, and record also names in other languages, such as Old Norse, (Old) Welsh, Latin and possibly Pictish. See Forsyth, K.; "Abstract: The Three Writing Systems of the Picts." in Black et al. Celtic Connections: Proceedings of the Tenth International Congress of Celtic Studies, Vol. 1. East Linton: Tuckwell Press (1999), p. 508; Richard A. V. Cox, The Language of the Ogam Inscriptions of Scotland, Dept. of Celtic, Aberdeen University ISBN 0-9523911-3-9 [1]; See also The New Companion to the Literature of Wales, by Meic Stephens, p. 540.
  6. ^ O'Kelly, Michael J., Early Ireland, an Introduction to Irish Prehistory, p. 251, Cambridge University Press, 1989

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