Perfileman India

(Dilencongkan dari Pawagam India)

Pawagam India terdiri daripada filem yang diterbitkan di India.[8] Panggung wayang gambar amat popular di India, dengan sebanyak 1,600 filem diterbitkan dalam pelbagai bahasa setiap tahun.[9][10] Pawagam India menghasilkan lebih banyak filem yang ditonton oleh orang ramai berbanding di negara lain; pada 2011, sebanyak 3.5 bilion tiket telah dijual di serata India, 900,000 lebih daripada Hollywood. Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai, Kochi, Bangalore dan Hyderabad ialah pusat utama penerbitan filem di India.

Pawagam India
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No. skrin6,780 skrin tunggal (2017)[1]
2,100 multiplex screens (2016)[2][3]
 • Per kapita9 per juta (2015)[3]
Filem cereka terbitan (2018)[4]
Jumlah1,813
Jumlah kemasukan (2016)[5]
Jumlah20,000,000
 • Per kapita1.69
Filem kebangsaan1,713,600,000
Kutipan pecah panggung (2017)[7]
Jumlah158.9 bilion (AS$Ralat ungkapan: Aksara tanda baca "[" tidak dikenali billion)
Filem kebangsaanAS$2.1 bilion (2015)[6]

RujukanSunting

  1. ^ "Will single-screen theatres in India become history?". Moneycontrol. Dicapai pada 7 September 2019.
  2. ^ Joshi, Hemant. "Bollywood The Indian Film Industry" (PDF). Deloitte. Dicapai pada 2 June 2017.
  3. ^ a b "Feature films: Cinema infrastructure - Capacity". UNESCO Institute for Statistics. UNESCO. Dicapai pada 7 May 2019.
  4. ^ "INDIAN FEATURE FILMS CERTIFIED DURING THE YEAR 2018". Film Federation of India. 6 May 2019.
  5. ^ "Culture: Feature Films". UNESCO Institute for Statistics. 2015. Diarkibkan daripada yang asal pada 2018-12-24. Dicapai pada 7 May 2019.
  6. ^ "Indian film industry's gross box office earnings may reach $3.7 billion by 2020: Report - Latest News & Updates at Daily News & Analysis". 26 September 2016.
  7. ^ "Value of the film industry in India". Statista. 2018. Dicapai pada 6 May 2019.
  8. ^ Hasan Suroor (26 October 2012). "Arts : Sharmila Tagore honoured by Edinburgh University". The Hindu. Dicapai pada 1 November 2012.
  9. ^ "Tamil leads as India tops film production". Times of India. Dicapai pada 25 March 2015.
  10. ^ "Electrolux-2nd" (PDF). Diarkibkan daripada yang asal (PDF) pada 7 February 2012. Dicapai pada 6 February 2012.

Bacaan lanjutSunting

  • Suresh Chabria; Paolo Cherchi Usai (1994). Light of Asia: Indian Silent Cinema, 1912–1934. Wiley Eastern. ISBN 978-81-224-0680-1.
  • Stanley A. Wolpert (2006). Encyclopedia of India. ISBN 978-0-684-31350-4.
  • Desai, Jigna (2004). Beyond Bollywood: The Cultural Politics of South Asian Diasporic Film. Psychology Press. ISBN 978-0-415-96684-9.
  • K. Moti Gokulsing; Wimal Dissanyake (2004). Indian Popular Cinema: A Narrative of Cultural Change. Trentham Books Limited. ISBN 978-1-85856-329-9.
  • Gulzar, Govin Nihalanni, & Saibel Chatterjee. Encyclopaedia of Hindi Cinema New Delhi: Encyclopædia Britannica, 2003. ISBN 81-7991-066-0.
  • Khanna, Amit (2003), "The Business of Hindi Films", Encyclopaedia of Hindi Cinema: historical record, the business and its future, narrative forms, analysis of the medium, milestones, biographies, Encyclopædia Britannica (India) Private Limited, ISBN 978-81-7991-066-5.
  • Gopal, Sangita; Moorti, Sujata (2008). Global Bollywood: Travels of Hindi Song and Dance. University of Minnesota Press. ISBN 978-0-8166-4578-7.
  • Narweker, Sanjit, ed. Directory of Indian Film-Makers and Films. Flicks Books, 1994. ISBN 0-948911-40-9
  • Stanley A. Wolpert (2006). Encyclopedia of India. ISBN 978-0-684-31351-1.
  • Nowell-Smith, Geoffrey (1996). The Oxford History of World Cinema. Oxford University Press, US. ISBN 978-0-19-811257-0.
  • Passek, Jean-Loup, penyunting (1983). Le cinéma indien. Paris: Centre national d'art et de culture Georges Pompidou. ISBN 9782864250371. OCLC 10696565. Unknown parameter |editorlink= ignored (bantuan)
  • Rajadhyaksha, Ashish; Willemen, Paul (1999). Encyclopedia of Indian Cinema. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-57958-146-6.
  • Stanley A. Wolpert (2006). Encyclopedia of India. ISBN 978-0-684-31351-1.
  • Velayutham, Selvaraj (2008). Tamil Cinema: The Cultural Politics of India's Other Film Industry. Psychology Press. ISBN 978-0-415-39680-6.
  • Watson, James L. (2009), Globalization, Encyclopædia Britannica.
  • Gopal, Sangita; Moorti, Sujata (2008). Global Bollywood: Travels of Hindi Song and Dance. University of Minnesota Press. ISBN 978-0-8166-4578-7.
  • Report of the Indian Cinematograph Committee 1927–1928. Superintendent, The Government Press, Madras. 1928.
  • Dwyer, Rachel; Patel, Divia (2002). Cinema India: The Visual Culture of Hindi Film. ISBN 978-0-8135-3175-5.
  • Culture and Representation: The Emerging Field of Media Semiotics/J A H Khatri/Ruby Press & Co./ISBN 978-93-82395-12-6/ 2013.