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Perang Indochina Pertama (umumnya dikenali sebagai Perang Indochina di Perancis, dan sebagai Perang Rintangan Anti-Perancis di Vietnam) bermula di Indochina Perancis pada 19 Disember 1946, dan berterusan sehingga 20 Julai 1954. Pertempuran antara pasukan Perancis dan musuh-musuh Viet Minh mereka di selatan bertarikh dari September 1945. Konflik tersebut telah menimbulkan pelbagai kekuatan, termasuk Kor Jerman Ekspedisi Korps Timur Jauh Kesatuan Perancis, yang dipimpin oleh Perancis dan disokong oleh Tentera Kebangsaan Vietnam Bảo Đại melawan Viet Minh,[30] diketuai oleh Ho Chi Minh[31] dan Tentera Rakyat Vietnam yang diketuai oleh Vo Nguyen Giap.[32] Kebanyakan pertempuran berlaku di Tonkin di Vietnam utara,[33] walaupun konflik itu melanda seluruh negara dan juga diperluaskan ke negara-negara pelindung Perancis Indochina yang berdekatan dengan Laos dan Kemboja.

Perang Indochina Pertama
Sebahagian daripada Perang Indochina, Perang Dingin, dan Dekolonisasi Asia
First Indochina War COLLAGE.jpg
Arah jarum jam dari atas: Selepas kejatuhan Dien Bien Phu menyokong pasukan Laotian jatuh ke Sungai Mekong ke Laos; Komando Marin Perancis berjalan melintasi pantai Annam pada bulan Julai 1950; M24 Chaffee tangki lampu Amerika yang digunakan oleh Perancis di Vietnam; Persidangan Geneva pada 21 Julai 1954; A Grumman F6F-5 Hellcat dari Escadrille 1F bersiap untuk mendarat di kapal pengangkut pesawat Arromanches (R95) yang beroperasi di Teluk Tonkin.
Tarikh 19 Disember 1946 (1946-12-19) – 1 Ogos 1954 (1954-08-01)
(7 tahun, 7 bulan, 1 minggu dan 6 hari)
Lokasi Indochina Perancis, terutamanya Vietnam
Hasil Viet Minh victory[1][2][3][4]
Casus belli Insiden Hai Phong 23 November 1946
Perubahan
wilayah
Pembahagian sementara Vietnam
Pihak yang terlibat
Vietnam Utara Viet Minh

Laos Lao Issara (1945–1949)

Kemboja Khmer Issarak[6]

Jepun Japanese volunteers


Supported by:[8]
 Soviet Union[9]
 China (1949–1954)[9]
 East Germany[10][11]
 Poland[12]

Templat:Country data French Fourth Republic France

Kemboja Kingdom of Cambodia
(1953–1954)
Templat:Country data Kingdom of Laos
(1953–1954)
Vietnam Selatan State of Vietnam (1949–1954)


Supported by:
 United States[13] (1950–1954)

Komandan
Vietnam Utara Hồ Chí Minh
Vietnam Utara Võ Nguyên Giáp

Vietnam Utara Phạm Văn Đồng
Vietnam Utara Trường Chinh Laos Souphanouvong
Kemboja Son Ngoc Minh

French Expeditionary Corps

State of Vietnam

Kekuatan
Viet Minh:
Biasa: 125,000
Serantau: 75,000
Angkatan Popular/tidak teratur: 250,000[14]
Bekas sukarelawan Tentera Darat Jepun: ~5,000[15]
Jumlah: ~450,000
Perancis:
Kor Ekspedisi: 190,000
Bantuan Tempatan: 55,000
Negara Vietnam:
150,000[16]
Jumlah: ~395,000
Korban
Viet Minh:
175,000–300,000 mati atau hilang (anggaran ahli sejarah Barat)[17][18][19][20]
191,605 mati atau hilang (angka kerajaan Vietnam)[21]
Kesatuan Perancis:
75,581 maut (20,524 ialah rakyat Perancis)[22][23]
64,127 cedera,
40,000 ditangkap
Negara Vietnam:
58,877 maut atau hilang[24]
Jumlah: ~134,500 maut atau hilang
400,000–842,707 terbunuh[25][19][26]
125,000–400,000 orang awam terbunuh[19][27][28][29]

Isi kandungan

Garis masaSunting

Campur tangan kuasa asingSunting

JepunSunting

ChinaSunting

Kesatuan SovietSunting

Amerika SyarikatSunting

Lihat jugaSunting

RujukanSunting

  1. ^ Lee Lanning, Michael (2008). Inside the VC and the NVA. : Texas A&M University Press. m/s. 119. ISBN 978-1-60344-059-2. 
  2. ^ Crozier, Brian (2005). Political Victory: The Elusive Prize Of Military Wars. Transaction. m/s. 47. ISBN 978-0-7658-0290-3. 
  3. ^ Fall, Street Without Joy, p. 63.
  4. ^ Logevall, Fredrik (2012). Embers of War: the fall of an empire and the making of America's Vietnam. Random House. m/s. 596–9. ISBN 978-0-375-75647-4. 
  5. ^ Jacques Dalloz, La Guerre d'Indochine 1945–1954, Seuil, Paris, 1987, pp. 129–130, 206
  6. ^ Jacques Dalloz (1987). La Guerre d'Indochine 1945–1954. Paris: Seuil. m/s. 129–130. 
  7. ^ Kiernan, Ben. How Pol Pot Came to Power. London: Verso, 1985. p. 80
  8. ^ henrisalvador. "John Foster Dulles on the fall of Dien Bien Phu". Dailymotion. Dicapai August 19, 2015. 
  9. ^ a b "Viện trợ của Trung Quốc đối với cuộc kháng chiến chống Pháp của Việt Nam". Diarkibkan daripada asal pada December 2, 2013. Dicapai August 19, 2015. 
  10. ^ http://geb.uni-giessen.de/geb/volltexte/2013/9311/pdf/DaoDucThuan_2013_02_05.pdf
  11. ^ "East Germany – The National People's Army and the Third World". 
  12. ^ Radvanyi, Janos (1980). "Vietnam War Diplomacy: Reflections of a Former Iron Curtain Official" (PDF). Paramaters: Journal of the US Army War College. Carlise Barracks, Pennsylvania. 10 (3): 8–15.
  13. ^ "CNN.com – France honors CIA pilots – Feb 28, 2005". Dicapai August 19, 2015. 
  14. ^ Windrow 1998, halaman 23
  15. ^ Ford, Dan. "Japanese soldiers with the Viet Minh". 
  16. ^ Windrow, Martin (1998). The French Indochina War 1946–1954 (Men-At-Arms, 322). London: Osprey Publishing. m/s. 11. ISBN 978-1-85532-789-4. 
  17. ^ Fall, Bernard, The Two Vietnams (1963)
  18. ^ Eckhardt, William, in World Military and Social Expenditures 1987–88 (12th ed., 1987) by Ruth Leger Sivard.
  19. ^ a b c Clodfelter, Michael, Vietnam in Military Statistics (1995)
  20. ^ Stanley Kutler: Encyclopedia of the Vietnam War (1996)
  21. ^ Chuyên đề 4 CÔNG TÁC TÌM KIẾM, QUY TẬP HÀI CỐT LIỆT SĨ TỪ NAY ĐẾN NĂM 2020 VÀ NHỮNG NĂM TIẾP THEO, datafile.chinhsachquandoi.gov.vn/Quản%20lý%20chỉ%20đạo/Chuyên%20đề%204.doc
  22. ^ Pierre Vermeren (2015). Le Choc des décolonisations: De la guerre d'Algérie aux printemps arabes. Éditions Odile Jacob. m/s. 16. ISBN 978-2-7381-6477-3. 
  23. ^ Duthel, Heinz (2015-02-26). La Legion et la bataille a Ðiên Biên Phú: LA LEGION EST LEUR PATRIE. ISBN 9783734765964. 
  24. ^ Dommen, Arthur J. (2001), The Indochinese Experience of the French and the Americans, Indiana University Press, pg. 252
  25. ^ T. Lomperis, From People's War to People's Rule (1996)
  26. ^ S. Karnow, Vietnam : a History (1983)
  27. ^ Smedberg, M (2008), Vietnamkrigen: 1880–1980. Historiska Media, p. 88
  28. ^ Eckhardt, William, in World Military and Social Expenditures 1987–88 (12th ed., 1987) by Ruth Leger Sivard.
  29. ^ Dommen, Arthur J. (2001), The Indochinese Experience of the French and the Americans, Indiana University Press, pg. 252.
  30. ^ Saigon under Bảo Đại's 1945–1954
  31. ^ Ho Chi Minh PRESIDENT OF NORTH VIETNAM
  32. ^ Vo Nguyen Giap VIETNAMESE GENERAL
  33. ^ Gulf of Tonkin Resolution

Bacaan lanjutSunting

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  • Chaliand, Gérard (1982). Guerrilla Strategies: An Historical Anthology from the Long March to Afghanistan. California: University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-04443-2. 
  • Jian, Chen (1993). "China and the First Indo-China War, 1950–54". The China Quarterly. 133 (March): 85–110. doi:10.1017/s0305741000018208. ISSN 0305-7410. 
  • Cogan, Charles G. (2000). "L'attitude des États-Unis à l'égard de la guerre d'Indochine". dalam Vaïsse, Maurice. Armée française dans la guerre d'Indochine (1946–1954). Bruxelles: Complexe. m/s. 51–88. ISBN 978-2-87027-810-9. 
  • Conboy, Kenneth; Morrison, James (1995). Shadow War: The CIA's Secret War in Laos. Boulder, CO: Paladin Press. ISBN 978-1-58160-535-8. 
  • Devillers, Philippe; Lacouture, Jean (1969). End of a War: Indochina, 1954. New York: Praeger. OCLC 575650635. 
  • Dunstan, Simon (2004). Vietnam Tracks: Armor in Battle 1945–75. Osprey Publishing. ISBN 978-1-84176-833-5. 
  • Fall, Bernard B. (1967). Hell in a Very Small Place: The Siege of Dien Bien Phu. Philadelphia: Lippincott. OCLC 551565485. 
  • Fall, Bernard B (1994). Street Without Joy. Stackpole Books. ISBN 978-0-8117-1700-7. 
  • Fall, Bernard B. (1963). The Two Viet-Nams: A Political and Military Analysis. New York: Praeger. OCLC 582302330. 
  • Giap, Vo Nguyen (1971). The Military Art of People's War. New York: Modern Reader. ISBN 978-0-85345-193-8. 
  • Goscha, Christopher E (2008). "Chapter 3 Belated Asian Allies: The Technical and Military Contributions of Japanese Deserters, (1945–50)". dalam Young, Marilyn B; Buzzanco, Robert. A Companion to the Vietnam War. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 9781405172042. 
  • Hammer, Ellen Joy (1954). The Struggle for Indochina. Stanford: Stanford University Press. OCLC 575892787. 
  • Humphries, James. F (1999). Through the Valley: Vietnam, 1967–1968. Lynne Rienner Publishers. ISBN 978-1-55587-821-4. 
  • Perkins, Mandaley (2006). Hanoi, Adieu: A Bittersweet Memoir of French Indochina. Sydney: Harper Perennial. ISBN 978-0-7322-8197-7. 
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  • Summers, Harry G. (1995). Historical Atlas of the Vietnam War. New York: Houghton Mifflin. ISBN 978-0-395-72223-7. 
  • Thi, Lam Quang (2002). The Twenty-Five Year Century: A South Vietnamese General Remembers the Indochina War to the Fall of Saigon. University of North Texas. ISBN 978-1-57441-143-0. 
  • Tuchman, Barbara Wertheim (1985). The march of folly: from Troy to Vietnam. Random House, Inc. ISBN 978-0-345-30823-8. Dicapai 2010-11-28. 
  • Vaïsse; editor (2000). L'Armée française dans la guerre d'Indochine (1946–1954). Paris: Editions Complexe. ISBN 978-2-87027-810-9. 
  • Wiest, Andrew; editor (2006). Rolling Thunder in a Gentle Land. Oxford: Osphrey. ISBN 978-1-84603-020-8. 
  • Windrow, Martin (1998). The French Indochina War, 1946–1954. Osprey. ISBN 978-1-85532-789-4. 
  • Windrow, Martin (2004). The Last Valley. Weidenfeld and Nicolson. ISBN 978-0-306-81386-3. 

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