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Menurut Encyclopædia Britannica,[1] pogrom ([po-grom] daripada погро́м bermaksud "mengapa-apakan" dalam bahasa Rusia) merujuk kepada keganasan anti-Yahudi dalam Empayar Rusia pada lewat abad ke-19 dan abad ke-20, di mana maksud tersebut dilanjutkan kpeada sebarang serangan, perompakan dan kemusnahan harta benda milik masyarakat Yahudi sepanjang sejarah.[2][3][4] Namun, istilah ini kini juga dipakai merujuk kepada kejadian-kejadian serupa terhadap kelompok-kelompok lain, yang umumnya adalah kelompok minoriti dalam sesebuah masyarakat.

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  1. ^ Editors of Encyclopædia Britannica; dll. (2017). Pogrom. Encyclopædia Britannica. Britannica.com. (Russian: "devastation" or "riot"), a mob attack, either approved or condoned by authorities, against the persons and property of a religious, racial, or national minority. The term is usually applied to attacks on Jews in the Russian Empire in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. 
  2. ^ Klier, John (2010). Pogroms. The YIVO Encyclopedia of Jews in Eastern Europe. YIVO Institute for Jewish Research. The common usage of the term pogrom to describe any attack against Jews throughout history disguises the great variation in the scale, nature, motivation, and intent of such violence at different times. 
  3. ^ Weinberg, Sonja (2010). Pogroms and Riots: German Press Responses to Anti-Jewish Violence in Germany and Russia (1881-1882). Peter Lang. m/s. 193. ISBN 978-3631602140. Most contemporaries claimed that the pogroms were directed against Jewish property, not against Jews, a claim so far not contradicted by research. 
  4. ^ Klier, John D.; Abulafia, Anna Sapir (2001). Religious Violence Between Christians and Jews: Medieval Roots, Modern Perspectives. Springer. m/s. 165. ISBN 978-1403913821. The pogroms themselves seem to have largely followed a set of unwritten rules. They were directed against Jewish property only.