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Satyajit Ray (Bahasa Benggali: সত্যজিৎ রায়, Sotyôjit Rai [so-to-jit rai] 2 Mei 1921 – 23 April 1992) ialah seorang pengarha filem, penggubah lagu, penulis lirik dan buku berbangsa Benggala dari India. Beliau dianggap sebagai antara pembikin filem paling masyhur abad ke-20.[2][3][4]

Satyajit Ray
সত্যজিৎ রায়
Satyajit Ray in New York (cropped).jpg
Ray pada tahun 1981
Kelahiran(1921-05-02)2 Mei 1921
Calcutta, Kepresidenan Bengal, India
Meninggal dunia23 April 1992(1992-04-23) (umur 70)
Kolkata, Bengal Barat, India
WarganegaraIndia
Pusat pendidikanUniversity of Calcutta
PekerjaanPenulis, pelukis, penggubah lagu, pembikin dan pengarah filem
Tahun aktif1950–1992
Karya terkenalPather Panchali
Apur Sansar
Sonar Kella
Hirak Rajar Deshe
Charulata
Mahanagar
Ketinggian6 ft 4 in (1.93 m)[1]
PasanganBijoya Ray (k. 1949–1992)
AnakSandip Ray (anak)
Ibu bapaSukumar Ray (ayah)
Suprabha Ray (ibu)
SaudaraUpendrakishore Ray Chowdhury (datuk)
AnugerahFull list
KepujianBharat Ratna (1992)
Tandatangan
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BiografiSunting

Awal hidupSunting

Satyajit Ray lahir kepada sebuah keluarga seniman yang tinggi. Ayahnya, Sukumar Ray seorag penyajak bahasa Benggali, pengilustrasi dan pengkritik sastera; datuk sebelah bapanya, Upendrakishore Ray, pula seorang sasterawan dan pemikir Brahmo Samaj yang menubuhkan suatu syarikat penerbitan sendiri. Keluarga mereka berpenganut Hindu dalam kasta Kayastha pemuja Betara Vishnu (Vaishnava);[5] mereka turut disalasilahkan selama 10 keturunan[6] di mana mereka mendapat nama keluarga mereka semasa zaman pemerintahan Empayar Mughal.

Sukumar meninggal ketika Satyajit berusia tiga tahun; ahli keluarga lain menampung diri dengan pendapatan ibunya, Suprabha Ray yang tidak seberapa.

Pendidikan tinggiSunting

Satyajit melanjutkan pelajarannya di Ballygunge Government High School, Calcutta serta menghabiskan pengajian bidang ekonomi tahap Sarjana di Presidency College, Calcutta yang bersama University of Calcutta. Pada tahun 1940, ibunya menggesanya melanjutkan pelajaran di sebuah universiti di Santiniketan, yang diasaskan Rabindranath Tagore bernama Visva-Bharati. Satyajit teragak-agak pada awalnya kerana rasa sukanya duduk di Kolkata[7] namun beliau memilih juga hasil pujukan ibunya serta minatnya kepada karya sasterawan tersebut. Pengajiannya di Santiniketan memutik rasa minat terhadap seni tampak setempat lagi-lagi daripada pelukis terkenal seperti Nandalal Bose[8] dan Benode Behari Mukherjee. Malah, lawatan-lawatannya ke Ajanta, Ellora dan Elephanta turut menguatkan minatnya terhadap seni lukisan tersebut.[9]

Kerjaya seni awalSunting

Kerjaya perfilemanSunting

Senja hidupSunting

Usianya yang meningkat tua memburukkan keadaan kesihatannya. Pada 1992, beliau dimasukkan ke dalam hospital akibat komplikasi jantung.

Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences sempat menganugerahkan beliau suatu Anugerah Akademi Kehormat - beliau merupakan satu-satunya warga India memperoleh kejayaan sebegini.[10] Beliau meinoinggal dunia lebih tiga minggu kemudian pada 23 April 1992.[11]

FilemografiSunting


Directed by RaySunting

List of films directed by Satyajit Ray[i][ii][iii][iv][v][vi][vii][viii]
Year Original title Language(s) Producer Music Screenplay Writer Other
1955 Pather Panchali Bahasa Benggali style="background: #9F9" class="table-yes" align=center | Ya
1956 Aparajito style="background: #9F9" class="table-yes" align=center | Ya style="background: #9F9" class="table-yes" align=center | Ya
1958 Parash Pathar Bahasa Benggala style="background: #9F9" class="table-yes" align=center | Ya Dialogue
1958 Jalsaghar style="background: #9F9" class="table-yes" align=center | Ya style="background: #9F9" class="table-yes" align=center | Ya Distributor
1959 Apur Sansar style="background: #9F9" class="table-yes" align=center | Ya style="background: #9F9" class="table-yes" align=center | Ya Distributor
1960 Devi style="background: #9F9" class="table-yes" align=center | Ya style="background: #9F9" class="table-yes" align=center | Ya Distributor
1961 Teen Kanya • The Postmaster • Monihara • Samapti style="background: #9F9" class="table-yes" align=center | Ya|style="background: #9F9" class="table-yes" align=center | Ya|style="background: #9F9" class="table-yes" align=center | Ya Distributor
1961 Rabindranath Tagore   Bahasa Inggeris style="background: #9F9" class="table-yes" align=center | Ya Narrator
1962 Kanchenjungha Bahasa Benggala style="background: #9F9" class="table-yes" align=center | Ya|style="background: #9F9" class="table-yes" align=center | Ya
1962 Abhijan Bahasa Benggala style="background: #9F9" class="table-yes" align=center | Ya|style="background: #9F9" class="table-yes" align=center | Ya
1963 Mahanagar Bahasa Benggala style="background: #9F9" class="table-yes" align=center | Ya|style="background: #9F9" class="table-yes" align=center | Ya
1964 Charulata Bahasa Benggala style="background: #9F9" class="table-yes" align=center | Ya|style="background: #9F9" class="table-yes" align=center | Ya
1964 Two   No spoken language style="background: #9F9" class="table-yes" align=center | Ya|style="background: #9F9" class="table-yes" align=center | Ya
1965 Kapurush-O-Mahapurush • Kapurush • Mahapurush Bahasa Benggala style="background: #9F9" class="table-yes" align=center | Ya|style="background: #9F9" class="table-yes" align=center | Ya
1966 Nayak Bahasa Benggala style="background: #9F9" class="table-yes" align=center | Ya|style="background: #9F9" class="table-yes" align=center | Ya
1967 Chiriyakhana Bahasa Benggala style="background: #9F9" class="table-yes" align=center | Ya|style="background: #9F9" class="table-yes" align=center | Ya Lyricist
1968 Goopy Gyne Bagha Byne Bahasa Benggala style="background: #9F9" class="table-yes" align=center | Ya|style="background: #9F9" class="table-yes" align=center | Ya  • Costume designer • Lyricist
1969 Aranyer Din Ratri Bahasa Benggala style="background: #9F9" class="table-yes" align=center | Ya|style="background: #9F9" class="table-yes" align=center | Ya
1970 Pratidwandi Bahasa Benggala style="background: #9F9" class="table-yes" align=center | Ya|style="background: #9F9" class="table-yes" align=center | Ya
1971 Seemabaddha Bahasa Benggala style="background: #9F9" class="table-yes" align=center | Ya|style="background: #9F9" class="table-yes" align=center | Ya
1971 Sikkim   English style="background: #9F9" class="table-yes" align=center | Ya|style="background: #9F9" class="table-yes" align=center | Ya  • Narrator

 • Sound designer

1972 The Inner Eye   Bahasa Benggala style="background: #9F9" class="table-yes" align=center | Ya|style="background: #9F9" class="table-yes" align=center | Ya  • Narrator

 • Sound designer

1973 Ashani Sanket Bahasa Benggala style="background: #9F9" class="table-yes" align=center | Ya|style="background: #9F9" class="table-yes" align=center | Ya
1974 Sonar Kella[A] Bahasa Benggala style="background: #9F9" class="table-yes" align=center | Ya|style="background: #9F9" class="table-yes" align=center | Ya|style="background: #9F9" class="table-yes" align=center | Ya
1975 Jana Aranya Bahasa Benggala style="background: #9F9" class="table-yes" align=center | Ya|style="background: #9F9" class="table-yes" align=center | Ya
1976 Bala   English style="background: #9F9" class="table-yes" align=center | Ya|style="background: #9F9" class="table-yes" align=center | Ya Narrator
1977 Shatranj Ke Khilari  • Bahasa Hindi

 • Urdu • English

style="background: #9F9" class="table-yes" align=center | Ya|style="background: #9F9" class="table-yes" align=center | Ya Dialogue
1979 Joi Baba Felunath[B] Bahasa Benggala style="background: #9F9" class="table-yes" align=center | Ya|style="background: #9F9" class="table-yes" align=center | Ya|style="background: #9F9" class="table-yes" align=center | Ya
1980 Hirak Rajar Deshe Bahasa Benggala style="background: #9F9" class="table-yes" align=center | Ya|style="background: #9F9" class="table-yes" align=center | Ya  • Art director • Costume designer • Lyricist
1980 Pikoo[C] Templat:Section-sign Bahasa Benggala style="background: #9F9" class="table-yes" align=center | Ya|style="background: #9F9" class="table-yes" align=center | Ya|style="background: #9F9" class="table-yes" align=center | Ya
1981 Sadgati Bahasa Hindi style="background: #9F9" class="table-yes" align=center | Ya|style="background: #9F9" class="table-yes" align=center | Ya Dialogue
1984 Ghare Baire Bahasa Benggala style="background: #9F9" class="table-yes" align=center | Ya|style="background: #9F9" class="table-yes" align=center | Ya
1987 Sukumar Ray   Bahasa Benggala style="background: #9F9" class="table-yes" align=center | Ya|style="background: #9F9" class="table-yes" align=center | Ya
1990 Ganashatru Bahasa Benggala style="background: #9F9" class="table-yes" align=center | Ya|style="background: #9F9" class="table-yes" align=center | Ya
1992 Shakha Proshakha style="background: #9F9" class="table-yes" align=center | Ya|style="background: #9F9" class="table-yes" align=center | Ya|style="background: #9F9" class="table-yes" align=center | Ya Distributor
1992 Agantuk[D] Bahasa Benggala style="background: #9F9" class="table-yes" align=center | Ya|style="background: #9F9" class="table-yes" align=center | Ya|style="background: #9F9" class="table-yes" align=center | Ya

Nota kakiSunting

  1. ^ Based on a novel: Sonar Kella by Ray.
  2. ^ Based on a novel: Joi Baba Felunath by Ray.
  3. ^ Based on a short story named Pikoor Diary (Pikoo's Diary), written by Ray for one of his books, Pikoor Diary O Onyanyo (Pikoo's Diary and Other Stories).
  4. ^ Based on a short story named Atithi (The Guest) by Ray.

RujukanSunting

  1. ^ "Biography". Satyajitray.org. Diarkibkan daripada yang asal pada 11 August 2003. Dicapai 14 August 2003. 
  2. ^ Tmh (2007). Book Of Knowledge Viii, 5E. Tata McGraw-Hill Education. ISBN 9780070668065. 
  3. ^ Robinson, W. Anderson. "Satyajit Ray". Encyclopædia Britannica. Diarkibkan daripada yang asal pada 26 December 2015. 
  4. ^ "Iconic filmmaker Satyajit Ray's 94th birth anniversary celebrated". Daily News and Analysis. 2 Mei 2015. Diarkibkan daripada yang asal pada 3 Mei 2015. 
  5. ^ Ames, Roger and Kasulis, Thomas (1998). Self as Image in Asian Theory and Practice. State University of New York press. m/s. 308. Satyajit Ray was born into a well known family of littérateurs and social reformers in 1921. Since the sixteenth century, the Rays had an east bengali connection through their landed estates in Mymensingh, now in Bangladesh. Unlike a majority of Bengali Kayastha who are Shaktos, the Rays were Vaisnvas. 
  6. ^ Seton 1971, halaman 36
  7. ^ Robinson 2003, halaman 46
  8. ^ Seton 1971, halaman 70
  9. ^ Seton 1971, halaman 71–72
  10. ^ "Acceptance Speeches: Satyajit Ray". Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. Diarkibkan daripada asal pada 20 October 2014. Dicapai 22 April 2013. 
  11. ^ "Satyajit Ray dead". The Indian Express. 24 April 1992. m/s. 1. 

Pautan luarSunting


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