Buka menu utama

Wikipedia β

Tun Habib Abdul Majid

Tun Habib Abdul Majid' (1637[1] – 27 July 1697)[2] adalah Bendahara Kesultanan Johor yang ke-19[3] Kesultanan Johor di bawah Sultan Mahmud Shah II mula kehilangan kuasa semasa perkhidmatan Tun Habib sebagai Bendahara Johor. Pergolakan dalaman Kesultanan Johor yang ditempuh Tun Habib mengukukuh kuasa beliau sebagai Bendahara, yang merupakan kuasa sebenar di belakang Kesultanan Johor pada ketika itu.[4] Selepas Tun Habib meninggal dunia, keturunannya menguasai Kesultanan Johor dan mengasaskan Kesultanan Riau-Lingga, Johor, Pahang dan Terengganu.[5]

Isi kandungan

Bendahara JohorSunting

Perebutan kuasaSunting

Tun Habib adalah anak Maharaja Sri Diraja Johor,[6] dan bersaing untuk pengaruh dan kuasa dengan Laksamana Tun Abdul Jamil semasa pemerintahan Sultan Abdul Jalil Shah III.[7]

Pada tahun 1677, Sultan Ibrahim Shah melantik Tun Habib sebagai Bendahara Johor dan diberi gelaran "Bendahara Seri Maharaja" pada tahun berikutnya.[8] Walaubagaimanapun, kuasa beliau dibayangi oleh Laksamana Tun Abdul Jamil yang lebih berpengaruh dan berpengalaman.[9] Tun Abdul Jamil, mengambil kesempatan daripada Sultan yang kurang berpengalaman, segera mengukuhkan pengaruh beliau di Riau dan mengisytiharkan dirinya sebagai Tengku Mahkota. Beliau berhenti membayar ufti kesetiaan kepada Sultan dan melantik keluarga beliau ke jawatan-jawatan penting. Ini menyebabkan kemarahan ramai pembesar-pembesar termasuk juga Tun Habib, yang bersatu untuk menentang Tun Abdul Jamil. Laksamana, tidak dapat melawan tentangan sengit oleh Tun Habib dan sekutunya, telah berundur ke Terengganu pada tahun 1688 dimana beliau telah terbunuh tidak lama selepas itu.[10] Setelah penyingkiran Tun Abdul Jamil, Tun Habib pergi ke Riau dan membawa Sultan Mahmud Shah II balik ke Johor.[11]

Pengukuhan kuasaSunting

Kematian Tun Abdul Jamil meletakkan kembali Tun Habib sebagai Bendahara. Tun Habib kembali semula kepada jawatannya sebagai Bendahara yang lebih kuat, ini memberikan daya bantuan kepada Sultan yang masih muda dan tidak tahu banyak urusan pentadbiran dan perhubungan masyarakat di Johor. Ketika adat istiadat istana, Tun Habib memberikan pengakuan taat setia kepada Sultan muda walaupun beliau mempunyai kemampuan menggunakan kuasa tunggal yang berkesan ke atas kerajaan. Pada bulan April 1691, utusan Belanda tiba di Johor bagi mendapatkan perjanjian perdagangan dengan Tun Habib, Namun, beliau dengan tegasnya berkata tidak akan menandatangani apa-apa watikah perjanjian sehinggalah Sultan mencapai umur baligh dan matang.[12]

Tun Habib juga dilaporkan sangat penyayang orangnya. Sangat menghormati rakyat dan bekerjasama dengan para menterinya (Orang Kaya). Kemudia, apabila mendapat kuasa, Tun Habib meletak tampuk empayar Johor ke Kota Tinggi.[9] Beliau juga mengambil alih tugas perhubungan negara dengan menghantar wakil ke Terengganu, pada masa itu keadaan di Terengganu kurang berpenghuni.[13] Sultan Mahmud diberi banyak peluang dalam urusan pentadbiran dibawah kawalan Tun Habib, walaupun beliau kemudian menggunakan kuasa tunggal yang berkesan ke atas aktiviti hubungan Sultan.[14] Tun Habib meninggal dunia di Padang Saujana, Kota Tinggi pada 1697, dan dimakamkan disana.[15] Anak lelaki sulungnya, Abdul Jalil, mengambil tampuk Bendahara Johor ke-20, tetapi merampas kedudukan Sultan Mahmud Shah II dua tahun kemudian pada tahun 1699 dan memakai gelaran Sultan Abdul Jalil IV.[11] His 5th son, Zainal Abidin, who was living in Pattani, came down to Terengganu and became its first Sultan.[16]

KeluargaSunting

KeturunanSunting

Ibu Tun Habib adalah berketurunan Melayu; manakala ayah beliau Sayyid Zainal Abidin adalah berketurunan Arab Hadramaut. Datuk beliau adalah Sayyid Abdullah Al-Aidrus, yang menetap di Aceh dan telah berkahwin dengan puteri Sultan Alauddin Mansyur Shah. Anak pasangan ini, Sayyid Zainal Abidin, telah berhijrah ke Johor dan berkahwin dengan cucu Tun Sri Lanang iaitu anak, Tun Jenal,[17] Bendahara Sekudai yang ke-5.[18] Perkahwinan ini telah melahirkan Tun Habib, Dato Pasir Diraja (Sayyid Ja'afar) dan Putri Bakal. Putri Bakal dipercayai telah berkahwin dengan Sultan Mahmud Shah II.[19]

"Habib" adalah gelaran tempatan Aceh yang serupa dengan gelaran "Sayyid", iaitu gelaran bagi keturunan Nabi Mohamad. Walaubagaimanapun, berikutan hubungan tegang Acheh dengan negara jiranya pada abad ke-16, gelaran tersebut mendedahkan keturunan Acheh beliau dan telah menimbulkan tanggapan serong terutamanya di dalam hal-hal berkaitan politik. Keturunan beliau telah mengugurkan pengunaan gelaran tersebut.[20]

DescendantsSunting

Tun Habib had several sons by different wives, all of whom rose to influential positions. He had at least six sons: Tun (Habib) Abdul Jalil, Tun Abdullah, Tun Abdul Jamal, Tun Mas Anum, Tun Zainal Abidin and Tun Mas Jiwa were all later appointed as Bendaharas. Among these sons, Tun Abdul Jalil and Tun Zainal Abidin later established their own independent ruling houses in Johor-Riau and Terengganu respectively.[21]

  • House of Bendahara, established by Sultan Abdul Jalil Riayat Shah IV which ruled Johor from 1699 until 1812 (albeit an interregnum between 1718 to 1722). In 1812, the death of Sultan Mahmud Shah III sparked a succession crisis between Tengku Abdul Rahman and his younger brother Tengku Hussein. The British, who came to the region in 1819 saw a royal house rivalled by succession dispute and took to task of recognising Sultan Hussein Shah as the Sultan of Johor and Singapore, while giving Tengku Abdul Rahman the title "Ruler of Singapore.[22] The royal regalia was given to the Lingga-based Tengku Abdul Rahman who was supported by the Bugis nobles and Bendahara Ali of Pahang.[23] The Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1824[24] had the effect of splitting the royal household into two factions:[25][26][27]
  • Keluarga Bendahara (Johor): Berasaskan di Johor, cabang ini diketuai oleh Sultan Hussein Shah sehingga kemangkatannya pada tahun 1824, sungguhpun Temenggong memegang lebih banyak kuasa berbanding Sultan, sebahagian besarnya disebabkan ketiadaan pengesahan dikalangan bangsawan Melayu.[28] Pengganti Hussein Shah, Ali, walaupun dia berjaya mendapatkan cop diRaja bagi pengesahan pemerintahannya,[29] dengan cepat diatasi oleh Temenggong yang lebih berkuasa. Di bawah tekanan British, dia dipaksa menyerahkan hak kedaulatan Johor (kecuali daerah Muar) pada Temenggong Daing Ibrahim pada tahun 1855. Sultan Ali meninggal pada tahun 1877.[30]
  • Keluarga Riau-Lingga: Cabang ini berasaskan di Lingga dan diketuai oleh Sultan Abdul Rahman, yang disokong oleh bangsawan Bugis.[31] Dia kemudian mangkat pada tahun 1832 dan diganti oleh anak lelakinya, Muhammad Shah[32] dan kemudiannya oleh cucunya, Mahmud Muzaffar Shah pada tahun 1841.[33] Sultan Mahmud Muzaffar Shah dilucutkan kuasa pada tahun 1857 oleh orang Belanda,[34][35] yang juga turut disokong oleh bangsawan Bugis.[36][37] In his later years, he began to claim recognition as the legitimate ruler of the Johor-Riau empire.[38] This royal house lasted until 3 February 1911, when the Dutch assumed full control over Riau and Lingga.[37]
  • House of Temenggong (Johor), established by Temenggong Tun Daeng Ibrahim, a descendant of Sultan Abdul Jalil Riayat Shah IV by his non-royal son Tun Abbas. The present Sultan of Johor belongs to this royal house.[30]
  • House of Bendahara (Pahang):[39] The current Sultan of Pahang traces his lineage to Sultan Wan Ahmad of Pahang, a descendant of Tun Abbas. (At one point of time another royal lineage that was related to the Malacca royal family (descended from Parameswara) also ruled Pahang, but later died out.[30]
  • The current Sultan of Terengganu is a descendant of Sultan Zainal Abidin I, the 5th and youngest son of Tun Habib.[19]

Nota kakiSunting

  1. ^ Deraman, Aziz, Peradaban Melayu Timur Laut, pg 1288
  2. ^ Ibrahim, Negeri Yang Sembilan: Daerah Kecil Pesaka Adat Warisan Kerajaan Berdaulat (1995), pg 137
  3. ^ Ali, Wan Ramli Wan Mohamad, Pengakuan Tengku Ali: mengapa saya diturunkan dari takhta Terengganu?, pg 3
  4. ^ Suwannathat-Pian, Thai-Malay Relations: Traditional Intra-regional Relations from the Seventeenth to the Early Twentieth Centuries, pg 39
  5. ^ Abdul Jalal, Noor Rahim, Isa, Peterana Kasih: Antologi Puisi, pg 12
  6. ^ Winstedt, A History of Johore, pg 195
  7. ^ Reid, Anthony, Southeast Asia in the Early Modern Era: Trade, Power, and Belief, pg 138
  8. ^ Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara, Malaysia Kita, pg 344
  9. ^ a b Turnbull, Constance Mary, A Short History of Malaysia, Singapore, and Brunei, pg 66
  10. ^ Bastin, Winks, Malaysia: Selected Historical Readings, pg 76
  11. ^ a b Pusat Penelitian Arkeologi Nasional (Indonesia), Pertemuan Ilmiah Arkeologi IV, Cipanas 3-9 Maret 1986, pg 283
  12. ^ Reid, Castles, Pre-colonial State Systems in Southeast Asia: The Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, Bali-Lombok, South Celebes, pg 5
  13. ^ Goneng, Growing Up in Trengganu, pg 138-9
  14. ^ Andaya, The Kingdom of Johor, 1641-1728: A Study of Economic and Political Developments in the Straits of Malacca, pg 198
  15. ^ Ali, Hooker, Andaya, The Precious Gift: Tuhfat Al-nafis, pg 314
  16. ^ Information Malaysia (1990), pg 714
  17. ^ "Jenal" is also spelled variously as "Jinal" or "Jinak". Winstedt, A History of Johore, pg 189, 194
  18. ^ (Tun) Suzana (Tun) Othman, Institusi Bendahara; Permata Melayu yang hilang: Dinasti Bendahara Johor-Pahang‎, pg 181
  19. ^ a b Winstedt, A History of Johore, pg 59-60, 195
  20. ^ Winstedt, R.O., Bendaharas and Temenggungs, pg 51
  21. ^ (Tun) Suzana (Tun) Othman, Institusi Bendahara; Permata Melayu yang Hilang: Dinasti Bendahara Johor-Pahang‎, pg 41
  22. ^ Trocki, Singapore: Wealth, Power and the Culture of Control, pg 82
  23. ^ Trocki, Prince of Pirates: The Temenggongs and the Development of Johor and Singapore, 1784-1885, pg 97
  24. ^ Buckley, An Anecdotal History of Old Times in Singapore: From the foundation of the settlement under the Honourable the East India Company on February 6th, 1819, to the transfer to the Colonial Office as part of the colonial possessions of the Crown on April 1st, 1867 ...It is amusing to find the assertion that the Sultan of Lingga (who had, by means of the Dutch, taken away half of the territory of Johore from the authority of his elder brother) had been prejudiced by the treaty of 1824 which secured Rhio to him...
  25. ^ Winstedt, A History of Johore (1365–1941), pg 95
  26. ^ Original facsimile of the letter may be seen in Perang Bendehara Pahang 1857-1863, Menelusi Peranan British, (Tun) Suzana (Tun) Othman, page 222
  27. ^ Tate, The Making of Modern South-East Asia, pg 134 .....Timmerman Thyssen, expressing his amazement at a fate which separated father from son, brother from brother, and friend from friend. He also declared that he continued to recognize Sultan Abdul Rahamn of Riau as his overlord, and his seal diplomatically styled him as the representative of the late Sultan Mahmud! In the same year he refused to allow the British flag to be flown in Pahang. Later, as the situation became clearer, Bendahara Ali modified his attitude and apparently accorded his recognition to Sultan Husain as well, and in 1841 Husain's son and heir asked to come to Pahang to be installed as the new sultan by the Bendahara. In 1853 the Bendahara felt sufficiently sure of his position to have himself proclaimed as an independent ruler, although the fiction of Johore's sovereignty was allowed to continue up till 1864. (NB: Johor was by then under the effective control of the Temenggong, later Sultan Abu Bakar of Johor.)
  28. ^ Kratoska, South East Asia, Colonial History, pg 247 In the south, Sultan Hussein of Johore had no authority among the Malay rulers, although one section of the European merchants of Singapore saw in him a useful tool for intrigue. The Sultan of Rhio was forbidden by the Dutch to interfere in the peninsula, and this political vacuum encouraged the bid for independence by the subordinate chiefs, the temenggong of Johore and the Bendahara of Pahang.
  29. ^ Reid, Anthony, An Indonesian Frontier: Acehnese and Other Histories of Sumatra, pg 252
  30. ^ a b c Trocki, Prince of Pirates: The Temenggongs and the Development of Johor and Singapore, 1784-1885, pg 22-3
  31. ^ Bastin, Winks, Malaysia: Selected Historical Readings, pg 132 Though in 1818 Major Farquhar had signed a treaty with the Underking of Riau by virtue of powers granted him by 'Abdu'r- Rahman Sultan of Johor, Pahang and dependencies, and though in his letter suggesting the Carimons (Karimun) for a port he had again referred to 'Abdu'r-Rahman as emperor, he now conveniently remembered that the potentate had deprecated being called ruler of the Johor empire and had declared that he was Sultan of Lingga only. So aware that under Dutch surveillance neither Sultan 'Abdu'r-Rahman of Lingga nor the Underking at Riau would be able to convey any rights at Singapore to the British,...
  32. ^ Jessy, History of South-East Asia, 1824-1965, pg 145
  33. ^ Trocki, Prince of Pirates: The Temenggongs and the Development of Johor and Singapore, 1784-1885, pg 97
  34. ^ Journal of the Malaysian Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society (1937), pg 210
  35. ^ Journal of the Malaysian Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society (1936) ...Mahmud Muzaffar Shah, deposed by the Dutch from the throne of Lingga, appeared in Pahang in 1858, claiming to be the lawful ruler of that State and of Johor, as his ancestors had been before his deposition.
  36. ^ Barnard, Contesting Malayness: Malay Identity Across Boundaries, pg 121 ...Reading historical sources, we are told that the Bugis in the nineteenth century associated very much with the colonial government and helped toget rid of the troublesome Malay Sultan Mahmud in 1857. .....Obviously there were tensions between them, most clearly reflected when the Malay Sultan Mahmud was deposed with the support of the Bugis in 1857.
  37. ^ a b Turnbull, A Short History of Malaysia, Singapore and Brunei, pg 122 After the Pahang civil war the Malay chiefs ceased to acknowledge the suzerainty of Riau-Lingga even formally. While the royal house of Lingga lasted until 1911, neither Bendahara Wan Ahmad nor his rival Temenggong Abu Bakar, applied to the sultan to confirm their titles.
  38. ^ Jessy, History of South-East Asia, 1824-1965, pg 61, "...to Sultan Mahmud Muzaffar Shah of Riau-Lingga in the early 1860's, in spite of the latter's laying claim to the whole of the old Johore-Riau empire.
  39. ^ Journal of the Malaysian Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society (1936), pg 162

RujukanSunting

  • Abdul Jalal, Ahmad Farid, Noor Rahim, Amaruszati, Isa, Yaakub, Peterana Kasih: Antologi Puisi, Lembaga Muzium Negeri Pahang Dengan Kerjasama Sekretariat Penulis Muda, DPMP Kawasan Pekan, 2004
  • Andaya, Leonard Y., The Kingdom of Johor, 1641-1728: A Study of Economic and Political Developments in the Straits of Malacca, 1971
  • Ali, al-Haji Riau, Hooker, Virginia Matheson, Andaya Barbara Watson, The Precious Gift: Tuhfat Al-nafis, Oxford University Press, 1982, ISBN 0-19-582507-1
  • Ali, Wan Ramli Wan Mohamad, Pengakuan Tengku Ali: mengapa saya diturunkan dari takhta Terengganu?, Fajar Bakti, 1993, ISBN 967-65-2724-6
  • Barnard, Timothy P., Contesting Malayness: Malay Identity Across Boundaries, NUS Press, 2004, ISBN 9971-69-279-1
  • Bastin, John Sturgus, Winks, Robin W., Malaysia: Selected Historical Readings, Oxford University Press, 1966
  • Boyd, Kelly, Encyclopedia of Historians and Historical Writing, Taylor & Francis, 1999, ISBN 1-884964-33-8
  • Buckley, Charles Burton, An Anecdotal History of Old Times in Singapore: From the foundation of the settlement under the Honourable the East India Company on February 6, 1819, to the transfer to the Colonial Office as part of the colonial possessions of the Crown on April 1, 1867, University of Malaya Press, 1965
  • Deraman, Aziz, Peradaban Melayu Timur Laut, Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka, 2003, ISBN 983-62-8083-9
  • Goneng, Awang, Growing Up in Trengganu, Monsoon Books, 2007, ISBN 981-05-8692-2
  • Ibrahim, Norhalim, Negeri Yang Sembilan: Daerah Kecil Pesaka Adat Warisan Kerajaan Berdaulat, Fajar Bakti, 1995, ISBN 967-65-3536-2
  • Information Malaysia, Berita Publications Sdn. Bhd, 1990
  • Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara, Malaysia Kita, Institut Tadbiran Awam Negara, 1991, ISBN 967-9933-12-1
  • Jessy, Joginder Singh, History of South-East Asia, 1824-1965, Penerbitan Darulaman, 1985
  • Journal of the Malaysian Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland Malaysian Branch, Singapore, 1933
  • Journal of the Malaysian Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland Malaysian Branch, Singapore, 1936
  • Journal of the Malaysian Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland Malaysian Branch, Singapore, 1937
  • Kratsoka, Paul A. South East Asia, Colonial History: Colonial History, Taylor & Francis, 2001, ISBN 0-415-21541-2
  • Pusat Penelitian Arkeologi Nasional (Indonesia), Pertemuan Ilmiah Arkeologi IV, Cipanas 3-9 Maret 1986, Departemen Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan, Pusat Penelitian Arkeologi Nasional, 1986
  • Reid, Anthony, An Indonesian Frontier: Acehnese and Other Histories of Sumatra, NUS Press, 2005, ISBN 9971-69-298-8
  • Reid, Anthony, Southeast Asia in the Early Modern Era: Trade, Power, and Belief, Cornell University Press, 1993, ISBN 0-8014-8093-0
  • Reid, Anthony, Castles, Lance, Pre-colonial State Systems in Southeast Asia: The Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, Bali-Lombok, South Celebes, Australian National University Dept. of Pacific and Southeast Asian History, 1975
  • Suwannathat-Pian, Kobbkua, Thai-Malay Relations: Traditional Intra-regional Relations from the Seventeenth to the Early Twentieth Centuries, Oxford University Press, 1988, ISBN 0-19-588892-8
  • Tate, D. J. M., The Making of Modern South-East Asia, Oxford University Press, 1979
  • Trocki, Carl A., Prince of Pirates: The Temenggongs and the Development of Johor and Singapore, 1784-1885, NUS Press, 2007, ISBN 9971-69-376-3
  • Trocki, Carl A., Singapore: Wealth, Power and the Culture of Control, Routledge, 2006, ISBN 0-415-26385-9
  • (Tun) Suzana (Tun) Othman, Institusi Bendahara; Permata Melayu yang Hilang: Dinasti Bendahara Johor-Pahang‎, 2002, ISBN 983-40566-6-4
  • Turnbull, Constance Mary, A Short History of Malaysia, Singapore, and Brunei, Cassell Australia, 1979, ISBN 0-7269-8725-5
  • Winstedt, R. O, A History of Johore (1365–1941), (M.B.R.A.S. Reprints, 6.) Kuala Lumpur: Malaysian Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, 1992, ISBN 983-99614-6-2
  • Winstedt R.O., A History of Malaya, Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Malayan Branch, 1935
  • Winstedt, R.O., Bendaharas and Temenggungs, Journal of Malayan Branch of Royal Asiatic Society, Vol X part I, 1932

Rujukan LanjutSunting

  • (Tun) Suzana (Tun) Othman, Tun Habib Abdul Majid; Bendahara Johor, Putera Acheh dan Zuriyyah Rasulullah SAW, Persatuan Sejarah Malaysia Cawangan Johor, 2006, ISBN 983-3020-10-0