pulau di Eropah Barat Laut

Koordinat: 53°20′N 08°00′W / 53.333°N 8.000°W / 53.333; -8.000

Ireland (disebut [i.rĕ.land] atau [ˈaɪrlənd , air.lĕnd]; Ireland: Éire ˈeːɾʲə ; Bahasa Ulster-Scots: Airlann atau Airlan) ialah sebuah pulau di barat laut benua Eropah.

the Emerald Isle,
the Island of Saints and Scholars
Satellite image of Ireland
Gambar imej angkasa, October 2010
LokasiNorthern Europe or Western Europe[1]
Kedudukan luas20th

Secara politik, ia terbahagi kepada Republik Ireland dan Ireland Utara (sebahagian United Kingdom). Ia juga mempunyai pembahagian budaya yang tersendiri iaitu provinsi.

  1. ^ Irish Travellers are an officially recognised ethnic group in Northern Ireland under the Race Relations (Northern Ireland) Order, 1997. In the Republic of Ireland they are classed as a "social group". Census forms in both jurisdictions contain tick-boxes for respondents to describes themselves as being an Irish Traveller. For more information see:
    • "Pack 2 – Traveller Culture". Traveller Legal Resource. Irish Traveller Movement. 2006. Diarkibkan daripada yang asal pada 2008-05-28. Dicapai pada 3 March 2010. no-break space character in |accessdate= at position 2 (bantuan); Check date values in: |accessdate= (bantuan)
    • "A Racial Equality Strategy for Northern Ireland 2005–2010" (PDF). Office of the First Minister and Deputy First Minister. 2005. Dicapai pada 3 March 2010.


  1. ^ "The World Factbook". Central Intelligence Agency (USA). 27 November 2009. Diarkibkan daripada yang asal pada 2019-05-06. Dicapai pada 2010-01-01. no-break space character in |date= at position 3 (bantuan); Check date values in: |date= (bantuan)
  2. ^ "Historial Population Trends - 1841 - 2011, NISRA" (PDF). Diarkibkan daripada yang asal (PDF) pada 2013-10-10. Dicapai pada 2012-11-28.
  3. ^ Nolan, William. "Geography of Ireland". Government of Ireland. Dicapai pada 11 November 2009. no-break space character in |accessdate= at position 3 (bantuan); Check date values in: |accessdate= (bantuan)


  • Arnold, Bruce (1977). Irish Art: A Concise History. London: Thames & Hudson. m/s. 180. ISBN 0-500-20148-X.
  • Becker, Annette (1997). 20th-century Architecture: Ireland. Munich: Prestel. m/s. 198. ISBN 3-7913-1719-9. Unknown parameter |coauthors= ignored (|author= suggested) (bantuan)
  • Collins, Neil (2001). Irish Politics Today. Manchester, UK: Manchester University Press. m/s. 163. ISBN 0-7190-6174-1. Unknown parameter |coauthors= ignored (|author= suggested) (bantuan)
  • Cullinane, J.P. (1973). Phycology of the south coast of Ireland. University College Cork.
  • Dennison, Gabriel (1994). Traditional Architecture in Ireland. Dublin: Environmental Institute, University College Dublin. m/s. 94. ISBN 1-898473-09-9. Unknown parameter |coauthors= ignored (|author= suggested) (bantuan)
  • Dooney, Sean (1992). Irish Government Today. Dublin: Gill and Macmillan. m/s. 247. ISBN 0-7171-1703-0. Unknown parameter |coauthors= ignored (|author= suggested) (bantuan)
  • Ellis, Steven G. (1921). The Story of the Irish Race: A Popular History of Ireland. Ireland: The Irish Publishing Co. m/s. 768. ISBN 0-517-06408-1.
  • Fairley, J.S. (1975). An Irish Beast Book. A Natural History of Ireland's Furred Wildlife. Blackstaff Press, Belfast. ISBN 0-85640-090-4.
  • Foster, Robert Fitzroy (1988). Modern Ireland, 1600–1972. Penguin Books. m/s. 688. ISBN 0-7139-9010-4.
  • Hackney, P. Ed. (1992). Stewart and Corry's Flora of the North-east of Ireland. Belfast: Institute of Irish Studies, The Queen's University. ISBN 0-85389-446-9.
  • Haigh, A. (2007). "Wild mammals of an Irish urban forest". The Irish Naturalists' Journal. Belfast: I.N.J. Committee. 28 (10): 395–403. ISSN 0021-1311. Unknown parameter |coauthors= ignored (|author= suggested) (bantuan)
  • Hardy, F.G.; Guiry, M.D. (2006). A Check-list and Atlas of the Seaweeds of Britain and Ireland (ed. revised). London: British Phycological Society, available from Koeltz Books, Germany. m/s. x + 435. ISBN 3-906166-35-X.
  • Herm, Gerhard (2002). The Celts. Ireland: St. Martin's Press. ISBN 0-312-31343-8.
  • Knowles, M.C. (1929). "The Lichens of Ireland". Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. 38: 179–434.
  • Morton, O. (1994). Marine Algae of Northern Ireland. Ulster Museum. ISBN 0-900761-28-8.
  • Morton, O. (2003). "The marine algae macroalgae of County Donegal, Ireland". Bulletin Irish biogeog. Society. 27: 3–164.
  • Nunn, J.D. (2002). Marine Biodiversity in Ireland and Adjacent Waters. Proceedings of a Conference 26–27 April 2001 (ed. Publication no. 8). Belfast: Ulster Museum.
  • O'Croinin, Daibhi (2005). Prehistoric and Early Ireland. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. m/s. 1219. ISBN 0-19-821737-4.
  • Ó Gráda, Cormac (1997). A Rocky Road: The Irish Economy Since the 1920s. Manchester University Press. m/s. 246. ISBN 0-7190-4584-3.
  • Oppenheimer, Stephen (2006). Origins of the British: A Genetic Detective Story. New York: Carroll & Graf. m/s. 534. ISBN 0-7867-1890-0.
  • O'Rahilly, T. F. (1947). Early Irish History and Mythology. US: Medieval Academy of America.
  • Scannell, Mary J.P. (1972). Census catalogue of the flora of Ireland. Dublin: Department of Agriculture & Fisheries. Unknown parameter |coauthors= ignored (|author= suggested) (bantuan)
  • Seaward, M.R.D. (1984). "Census Catalogue of Irish Lichens". Glasra. 8: 1–32.
  • Woodcock, N.H. (2000). Geological History of Britain and Ireland. Hoboken, New Jersey: Blackwell Publishing. m/s. 423. ISBN 0-632-03656-7. Unknown parameter |coauthors= ignored (|author= suggested) (bantuan); External link in |publisher= (bantuan)
  • Wallis, Geoff (2001). The Rough Guide to Irish Music. Rough Guides. m/s. 599. ISBN 1-85828-642-5. Unknown parameter |coauthors= ignored (|author= suggested) (bantuan)

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