Perbezaan antara semakan "Undang-undang China"

k (bot menambah: en:Chinese law)
==Tradisi hukum China==
{{Main|Undang-undang China tradisional}}
===TheGagasan idea of lawundang-undang===
ThePerkataan worduntuk forundang-undang law indalam [[classical Chinese]] wasdalah ''fǎ'' . The [[ChineseSifat characterCina]] foruntuk ''fǎ'' denotesmenandakan a meaning ofmakna "fairadil", "straightlurus" anddan "justkeadilan", derivedberasal fromdari its waterairnya [[Radical (Chinese character)|radical]]. ItIa alsojuga carriesmenjalankan the sense ofsegi "standardpiawai, measurementukuran, anddan model".<ref>See [[Lang Chippings]], "Explicating 'Law': A Comparative Perspective of Chinese and Western Legal Culture" (1989) 3(1) ''Journal of Chinese Law'' 55-92.</ref> Derk Bodde and Clarence Morris held that the concept of ''fǎ'' had an association with ''yi'' (義: "social rightness").<ref>Derk Bodde and Clarence Morris, ''Law in Imperial China: Exemplified by 190 Ching Dynasty Cases with Historical, Social, and Judicial Commentaries'' (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1973) at 14-15.</ref> [[Yan Fu]], indalam histerjemahan Chinesebahasa translationCinanya of [[Montesquieu]]'sdari ''[[De l'esprit des lois]]'' published[[Montesquieu]] inditerbitkan pada 1913, warnedmemberi hisamaran readerskepada aboutpara thepembacanya differencetentang betweenperbezaan thedi Chineseantara ''fǎ'' andChina Westerndan undang-undang lawBarat: "The wordPerkataan 'lawundang-undnag' indalam Westernbahasa-bahasa languagesBarat hasmempunyai fourempat differentterjemahan interpretationsberlainan i "rites", "decorum"), ''fǎ'' (法: "humanundang-undang lawsmanusia") anddan ''zhì'' (制: "controlkawalan").<ref>Yan Fu, ''Fayi'' [法意: "The Spirit of the Laws"] (Beijing: The Commercial Press, 1981) at 2.</ref>
ASebuah termistilah whichyang precededmendahului ''fǎ'' was ''xíng'' (刑), which originally probably referred to [[decapitation]]. ''Xíng'' later evolved to be a general term for laws that related to criminal punishment. The early history ''[[Shang Shu]]'' recorded the earliest forms of the "five penalties": [[tattoo]]ing, [[disfigurement]], [[castration]], [[mutilation]], and [[capital punishment|death]]. Once written law came into existence, the meaning of ''xíng'' was extended to include not only punishments but also any state prohibitions whose violation would result in punishments. In modern times, ''xíng'' may be understood in the sense of [[penal law]] or [[criminal law]]. An example of the classical use of ''xíng'' is ''xíng bu'' (刑部: "Department of Punishment") for the legal or justice department in imperial China.
The two major Chinese philosophical schools discussed below, Confucianism and Legalism, strongly influenced the idea of law in China. Briefly, under Confucianism, the state should lead the people with virtue and thus create a sense of shame which will prevent bad conduct. Under Legalism, law is to be publicly promulgated standards of conduct backed by state coercion. The tension between these two systems is that Confucianism relies on tradition to make the leader the head of household of all China while Legalism makes standard law that even the emperor should be bound by. The common factor is that both endorse to different degrees a paternalistic conception of the state, which knows better than its citizens and makes laws to protect them. This concept persisted throughout the imperial period, into the republican period, and can still be seen acting today.
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