Perbezaan antara semakan "Undang-undang China"

{{Main|Undang-undang China tradisional}}
===Gagasan undang-undang===
Perkataan untuk undang-undang dalam [[classicalbahasa ChineseCina klasik]] dalahialah ''fǎ''. [[Sifat Cina]] untuk ''fǎ'' menandakan makna "adil", "lurus" dan "keadilan", berasal dari airnya [[Radical (Chinese character)|radical]]. Ia juga menjalankan segi "piawai, ukuran, dan model".<ref>See [[Lang Chippings]], "Explicating 'Law': A Comparative Perspective of Chinese and Western Legal Culture" (1989) 3(1) ''Journal of Chinese Law'' 55-92.</ref> Derk Bodde and Clarence Morris held that the concept of ''fǎ'' had an association with ''yi'' (義: "social rightness").<ref>Derk Bodde and Clarence Morris, ''Law in Imperial China: Exemplified by 190 Ching Dynasty Cases with Historical, Social, and Judicial Commentaries'' (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1973) at 14-15.</ref> [[Yan Fu]], dalam terjemahan bahasa Cinanya dari ''[[De l'esprit des lois]]'' [[Montesquieu]] diterbitkan pada 1913, memberi amaran kepada para pembacanya tentang perbezaan di antara ''fǎ'' China dan undang-undang Barat: "Perkataan 'undang-undnag' dalam bahasa-bahasa Barat mempunyai empat terjemahan berlainan i "rites", "decorum"), ''fǎ'' (法: "undang-undang manusia") dan ''zhì'' (制: "kawalan").<ref>Yan Fu, ''Fayi'' [法意: "The Spirit of the Laws"] (Beijing: The Commercial Press, 1981) at 2.</ref>
 
Sebuah istilah yang mendahului ''fǎ'' was ''xíng'' (刑), whichyang originallyterdahulunya probablymungkin referredmerujukkan topada [[decapitation[pancungan]]. ''Xíng'' laterkemudian evolved to be a general term for laws that related to criminal punishment. The early history ''[[Shang Shu]]'' recorded the earliest forms of the "five penalties": [[tattoo]]ing, [[disfigurement]], [[castration]], [[mutilation]], and [[capital punishment|death]]. Once written law came into existence, the meaning of ''xíng'' was extended to include not only punishments but also any state prohibitions whose violation would result in punishments. In modern times, ''xíng'' may be understood in the sense of [[penal law]] or [[criminal law]]. An example of the classical use of ''xíng'' is ''xíng bu'' (刑部: "Department of Punishment") for the legal or justice department in imperial China.
 
Dua sekolah falsafah Cina utama dibincang di bawah, Confucianism dan Legalism, secara kuat mempengaruhi gagasan undang-undang di China. Secara ringkas, di bawah Confucianism, negara seharusnya mengetuai rakyat dengan sifat baik dan oleh itu mencipta suatu erti kemaluan yang akan mencegah kelakuan buruk. Di bawah Legalism, undang-undang seharusnya di awam mengisytiharkan piawai kelakuan dibelakangi oleh pemaksaan negara. Ketegangan di antara dua sistem ini yang Confucianism tergantung pada tradisi yang membuat pemimpin ketua rumah tangga seluruh China sementara Legalism membuat undang-undang piawai yang maharaja jua terpaksa mematuh. Faktor umum adalah bahawa kedua-dua yang tersebut ke peringkat berlainan suatu tanggapan paternalistik negara, yang mengetahui lebih daripada rakyatnya dan membuat undnag-undang untuk melindungi mereka. Konsep ini berterusan di sepanjang zaman imperial, ke dalam zaman republik, dan masih dapat dilihat bertindak hari ini.
The two major Chinese philosophical schools discussed below, Confucianism and Legalism, strongly influenced the idea of law in China. Briefly, under Confucianism, the state should lead the people with virtue and thus create a sense of shame which will prevent bad conduct. Under Legalism, law is to be publicly promulgated standards of conduct backed by state coercion. The tension between these two systems is that Confucianism relies on tradition to make the leader the head of household of all China while Legalism makes standard law that even the emperor should be bound by. The common factor is that both endorse to different degrees a paternalistic conception of the state, which knows better than its citizens and makes laws to protect them. This concept persisted throughout the imperial period, into the republican period, and can still be seen acting today.
 
UnlikeTidak many other majorseperti [[civilizationtamadun]]s whereutama lain di writtenmana lawundang-undang wastulisan helddijalankan in honor and often attributed to divine origin, law in early China was viewed in purely [[secular]] terms and its initial appearance was greeted with hostility by Confucian thinkers as indicative of a serious moral decline, a violation of human morality, and even a disturbance of the total cosmic order.<ref>Note 4 at 13.</ref> Historically, the people's awareness and acceptance of ethical norms was shaped far more by the pervasive influence of custom and usage of property and by inculcating moral precepts than by any formally enacted system of law. Early emperors however embraced the Legalist ideal as a way of exerting control over their large and growing territory and population. This process was integrated with traditional Chinese beliefs in the cosmic order, holding that correct behavior was behavior consonant with the appropriate responses set by ''fǎ''. ''Xíng'' states the potential costs to the individual of exceeding them and imposes penalties for these actions.<ref>Brian E. McKnight, ''Law and Order in Sung China'' (London: Cambridge University Press, 1992) at 6.</ref>
 
The imperial period was characterized mainly by the concept of law as serving the state, a means of exerting control over the citizenry. In the late Qing dynasty there were efforts to reform the law codes mainly by importing [[Germany|German]] codes with slight modifications. This effort continued and was amplified in the republican period resulting in the Provisional Constitution of [[1912]] which included the idea of equality under the law, rights for women, and broader rights for citizens vis-à-vis the government. The onset of the communist period at first rolled back the development of individual rights with the primary concept of law returning to that of a tool of the state. After the Cultural Revolution devastated the ranks of intellectuals and legal professionals, it took until [[1982]] for the idea of individual rights to reemerge as a significant influence on Chinese law.
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