Perbezaan antara semakan "Ekonomi United Kingdom"

tiada ringkasan suntingan
KDNK secara ringkasnya telah mencapai pertumbuhan 4% pada awal 1990an dan secara beransur merosot pada tahun-tahun berikutnya. Ekonomi yang mencapai kemuncak itu adalah sementara berbanding tahun-tahun sebelumnya seperti kadar yang dicapai 6.5% pada 1970 yang menujukkan pertumbuhan yang mampan.<ref>ONS figures, reproduced by the Local Government Association, "From Recession to recovery", Nov 2008, http://www.lga.gov.uk/lga/aio/1215871, accessed 13-05-09, p7</ref> Kadar pertumbuhan tahunan adalah secara purata 2.68% dari tahun 1992-2007 berdasarkan laporan IMF dengan sector kewangan menjadi penyumbang terbesar dalam pertumbuhan.
 
Keadaan ekonomi melambung berakhir pada 2008 apabila United Kingdom tiba-tiba memasuki suatu [[Kemelesetan lewat 2000an|kemelesetan]] di bawa oleh [[Krisis kewangan merata dunia 2008–2009|krisis kewangan merata dunia]]. Bermula dengan keruntuhan [[Northern Rock]], yang diambil ke dalam [[pemilikan awam]] pada Februari 2008, bank lain harus menjadi sparuh dimiliknegarakan. [[Royal Bank of Scotland Group]], yang mana di puncaknya adalah bank terbesar kedua di UK dan kelima terbesar di dunia mengikut kapitalisasi pasar, telah secara berkesan dimiliknegarakan pada 13 Oktober 2008, apabila Kerajaan British mengumumkan ia akan takemengadakan akepentingan stakedalam of up tosebanyak 58% in thedalam Group. ByPada midpertengahan 2009, the HM Treasury hadtelah aada 70.33% controllingmengawal shareholdingpegangan insaham di RBS, anddan asuatu 43% shareholdingpegangan throughsaham melalui UK Financial Investments Limited ofdari [[Lloyds Banking Group]], formerlybekas thekumpulan fifthperbankan largestterbesar bankingkelima group in thedi UK. ThisKemelesetan ini recessiontelah hasmelihat seenpengganguran unemploymentbertambah risedengan substantiallybanyak, fromdari just overhanya 1,600,000 inlebih di JanuaryJanuari 2008 [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/business/7304330.stm] toke nearlyhampir 2,500,000 inpada OctoberOktober 2009 [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/business/8415683.stm] yet less sowalaupun whendemikian comaparedkurang todibandingkan countriesdengan suchnegara asseperti GermanyJerman, FrancePerancis oratau SpainSepanyol.
 
TheEkonomi UK economytelah hadmenjadi beensalah onesatu ofekonomi theKE strongestterkuat EUdari economies in terms ofsegi [[inflationinflasi]], [[interestkadar ratefaedah]]s anddan [[unemploymentpengangguran]], allsemua ofdari whichmana remainedtinggal relativelysecara lowrelatif untilrendah thehingga kemelesetan 2008-09 recession. UnemploymentPengangguran hastelah sincesejak reacheditu amencapai peakpuncak ofhanya justdi underbawah 2.5 millionjuta (7.8%), thetingkat highesttertinggi levelsejak sinceawal early1990an 1990swalaupun althoughkadar thisini ratetinggal remainslebih farlagi lowerrendah thandaripada manybanyak othernegara EuropeanEropah nationslain. HoweverMeskipun, interestkadar ratesfaedah havetelah beenditetak slashed toke 0.5%. InPada 2007, accordingmenurut to thedengan [[InternationalKumpulan MonetaryWang FundAntarabangsa]], the United Kingdom hadtelah themempunyai ninthtingkat highesttertinggi level ofkesembilan [[GDPKDNK pertiap capita]] in the European Uniondalam inKesatuan termsEropah ofdarisegi purchasingmembeli powerkuasa paritypersamaan, afterselepas [[Luxembourg]], [[Ireland]], the [[NetherlandsBelanda]], [[Austria]], [[Denmark]], [[Sweden]], [[Belgium]] anddan [[Finland]]. HoweverMeskipun, insama commondengan with the economies of otherekonomi [[AnglosphereAnglosfera|Englishnegara-speakingnegara countriesbertutur Inggeris]] lain, itia hasmempunyai highertaraf levelslebih oftinggi [[incomeketidaksamaan inequalitygaji]] thandaripada banyak manynegara EuropeanEropah countrieslain. DuringSewaktu AugustOgos 2008 theKWA IMFmemberi warnedamaran thatbahawa thetinjauan ekonomi UK economic outlook had worsenedsemakin dueteruk todisebabkan asuatu twinkejutan shockkembar: financialkekacauan turmoilkewangan asdan welljuga asharga risingkomoditi commodityyang pricesmenaik.<ref>[http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/survey/so/2008/CAR081108A.htm Twin Global Shocks Dent United Kingdom Outlook], IMF, August 11, 2008.</ref> BothKedua-dua developmentsperkembangan harmtersebut themengugut UK morelebih thandaripada mostkebanyakan developednegara countriesmaju, asoleh thekerana UK obtainsmemperolehi revenuehasil fromdari exportingmengekspot financialperkhidmatan serviceskewangan whilesementara recordingmerakam deficitsdefisit inpada finishedbarang goodssiap anddan commoditieskomoditi, includingtermasuk foodmakanan.
 
InPada 2007, the UK had themempunyai [[ListSenarai ofnegara countriesmengikut byseimbang currentakaun account balancekini|world'sdefisit thirdakaun largestkini currentterbesar accountketiga deficitdi dunia]], despitesungguhpun significanthasil oilminyak revenuesyang penting, accordingmenurut todengan the IMFKWA. ThisIni wasterutamanya mainlydisebebkan thesuatu resultdefisit ofbesar adalam largeperdagangan deficitbarang in the trade in manufactured goodsperkilangan. DuringSewaktu MayMei 2008, theKWA IMFmenasihatkan advised thekerajaan UK governmentuntuk tomelebarkan broadenskop thepolisi scopebelanjawan ofuntuk fiscalmengalakkan policy to promote externalkeseimbangan balanceluar.<ref>[http://www.imf.org/external/np/ms/2008/052308.htm United Kingdom - 2008 Article IV Consultation Concluding Statement of the Mission], IMF, May 23, 2008.</ref> AlthoughWalaupun the"daya UK'spengeluaran "labourburuh productivitytiap perorang persondiambil employedkerja" hasUK beentelah progressing well over the last two decades anddan hastelah overtaken productivity indi theJerman united Germanybersatu, itia lags arounddi sekitar 20% behindbelakang France'stingkat levelPerancis, wheredi workersmana havepara apekerja mempunyai 35-hour workingjam minggu weekbekerja.<ref>[http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/portal/page?_pageid=1996,39140985&_dad=portal&_schema=PORTAL&screen=detailref&language=en&product=STRIND_ECOBAC&root=STRIND_ECOBAC/ecobac/eb021 eurostat.ec.europa.eu] - Labour productivity per person employed</ref> The UK's "labourDaya productivitypengeluaran pertiap hourjam workedbekerja" isUK currentlyadalah onkini asetaraf pardengan withpukul therata averageuntuk for theKE "oldlama" EU (15 countriesnegara).<ref>[http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/portal/page?_pageid=1996,39140985&_dad=portal&_schema=PORTAL&screen=detailref&language=en&product=STRIND_ECOBAC&root=STRIND_ECOBAC/ecobac/eb022 eurostat.ec.europa.eu] - Labour productivity per hour worked</ref> The United Kingdom currently ranks 21st on the [[Human Development Index]].
 
==Persembahan ekonomi kini ==
==Recent economic performance ==
The UK enteredmemasuki akemelesetan recession inpada Q2 of 2008, accordingmenurut to thedengan UK Office of National Statistics (ONS) anddan exitedmengeluarnya it inpada Q4 of 2009. The revised ONS figures of November 2009 showed that the UK had suffered six consecutive quarters of negative growth.<ref>Economy contracts by 0.3% in Q3 2009, http://www.statistics.gov.uk/cci/nugget.asp?id=192</ref><ref>UK economy shrinks less than thought, BBC News, 25 November 2009, http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/business/8378129.stm</ref> As of the end of November 2009, the economy had shrunk by 4.9%, making the 2008-2009 recession the longest since records began.<ref>http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/business/8594409.stm</ref> In December 2009, the Office of National Statistics revised figures for the third quarter of 2009 showed that the economy shrank by 0.2%, compared to a 0.6% fall the previous quarter.<ref name="statistics.gov.uk">http://www.statistics.gov.uk/cci/nugget.asp?id=192, Office for National Statistics, accessed 23 October 2009</ref>.
In the 3 months to February 2010 the U.K. economy grew yet again by 0.4% <ref>http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/business/8594409.stm</ref>
 
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