Perbezaan antara semakan "Bantuan:AFA/Sweden"

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{| class="wikitable" style="margin: 1em"
|+ [[Consonant]]s
! colspan="2" | AFaAFA
! rowspan="2" | Contoh
! rowspan="2" | English approximation
|-
! {{flagicon|Sweden}}
{{abbr|SWE|Sweden Swedish}}
! {{flagicon|Swedish-speaking Finns|size=x14pxFinland}}
{{abbr|FIN|Finland Swedish}}
|-
| colspan="2" style="text-align: center;" | <big>{{IPA link|b}}</big>
| {{Audio|Sv-bok.ogg|'''''b'''ok''|help=no}}
| '''b'''ook
|-
| style="text-align: center;" | <big>{{IPA link|ɕ}}</big>
| style="text-align: center;" | <big>{{IPA link|tɕ}}</big>
| {{Audio|Sv-kjol.ogg|'''''kj'''ol''|help=no}}, {{Audio|Sv-tjock.ogg|'''''tj'''ock''|help=no}}, {{Audio|Sv-kön.ogg|'''''k'''ön''|help=no}}
| '''sh'''eep ''or'' '''ch'''eat
|-
| colspan="2" style="text-align: center;" | <big>{{IPA link|d}}</big>
| {{Audio|Sv-dop.ogg|'''''d'''op''|help=no}}
| '''d'''a'''d'''
|-
| style="text-align: center;" | <big>{{IPA link|ɖ}}</big>
| style="text-align: center;" | <big>{{IPA link|r}}{{IPA link|d}}</big>
| {{Audio|Sv-nord.ogg|''no'''rd'''''|help=no}}<ref name="retroflex">In many of the dialects that have an [[apical consonant|apical]] [[rhotic consonant]], a recursive [[sandhi]] process of retroflexion occurs, and clusters of {{IPA|/r/}} and dental consonants {{IPA|/rd/}}, {{IPA|/rl/}}, {{IPA|/rn/}}, {{IPA|/rs/}}, {{IPA|/rt/}} produce [[retroflex consonant]] realisations: {{IPAblink|ɖ}}, {{IPAblink|ɭ}}, {{IPAblink|ɳ}}, {{IPAblink|ʂ}}, {{IPAblink|ʈ}}. In dialects with a [[guttural R]], such as [[South Swedish dialects|Southern Swedish]], they are {{IPA|[ʁd]}}, {{IPA|[ʁl]}}, {{IPA|[ʁn]}}, {{IPA|[ʁs]}}, {{IPA|[ʁt]}}. In Finland Swedish, retroflexion might only occur in some varieties, especially among young speakers and in fast speech.</ref>
| ''[[Retroflex consonant|retroflex]]'' {{IPA|/d/}}
|-
| colspan="2" style="text-align: center;" | <big>{{IPA link|f}}</big>
| {{Audio|Sv-fot.ogg|'''''f'''ot''|help=no}}
| '''f'''oot
|-
| colspan="2" style="text-align: center;" | <big>{{IPA link|ɡ}}</big>
| {{Audio|Sv-god.ogg|'''''g'''od''|help=no}}
| '''g'''ood
|-
| colspan="2" style="text-align: center;" | <big>{{IPA link|h}}</big>
| {{Audio|Sv-hot.ogg|'''''h'''ot''|help=no}}
| '''h'''at
|-
| style="text-align: center;" | <big>{{IPA link|ɧ}}</big>
| style="text-align: center;" | <big>{{IPA link|ʃ}}</big>
| {{Audio|Sv-sju.ogg|'''''sj'''u''|help=no}}, {{Audio|Sv-stjärna.ogg|'''''stj'''ärna''|help=no}}, {{Audio|Sv-skör.ogg|'''''sk'''ör''|help=no}}, {{Audio|Sv-station.ogg|''sta'''ti'''on''|help=no}}, {{Audio|Sv-pension.ogg|''pen'''si'''on''|help=no}}, {{Audio|Sv-ett geni.ogg|'''''g'''eni''|help=no}}, {{Audio|Sv-choklad.ogg|'''''ch'''oklad''|help=no}}<ref>Sweden Swedish {{IPA|/ɧ/}} varies regionally and is sometimes {{IPAblink|x|xʷ}}, {{IPAblink|ɸ|ɸˠ}}, or {{IPAblink|ʂ}}.</ref>
| ''somewhat like [[Scottish English|Scottish]]'' lo'''ch''' ''or'' '''sh'''eep ''(varies regionally)''
|-
| colspan="2" style="text-align: center;" | <big>{{IPA link|j}}</big>
| {{Audio|Sv-jord.ogg|'''''j'''ord''|help=no}}, {{Audio|Sv-genom.ogg|'''''g'''enom''|help=no}}, {{Audio|Sv-Göteborg.ogg|'''''G'''ötebor'''g'''''|help=no}}
| '''y'''o'''y'''o
|-
| colspan="2" style="text-align: center;" | <big>{{IPA link|k}}</big>
| {{Audio|Sv-kon.ogg|'''''k'''on''|help=no}}
| '''c'''one
|-
| colspan="2" style="text-align: center;" | <big>{{IPA link|l̪|l}}</big>
| {{Audio|Sv-lov.ogg|'''''l'''ov''|help=no}}
| '''l'''ack
|-
| style="text-align: center;" | <big>{{IPA link|ɭ}}</big>
| style="text-align: center;" | <big>{{IPA link|r}}{{IPA link|l}}</big>
| {{Audio|Sv-ett kärl.ogg|''kä'''rl'''''|help=no}}<ref name="retroflex"/>
| ''[[Retroflex consonant|retroflex]]'' {{IPA|/l/}}
|-
| colspan="2" style="text-align: center;" | <big>{{IPA link|m}}</big>
| {{Audio|Sv-mod.ogg|'''''m'''od''|help=no}}
| '''m'''ode
|-
| colspan="2" style="text-align: center;" | <big>{{IPA link|n̪|n}}</big>
| {{Audio|Sv-nod.ogg|'''''n'''od''|help=no}}
| '''n'''ode
|-
| style="text-align: center;" | <big>{{IPA link|ɳ}}</big>
| style="text-align: center;" | <big>{{IPA link|r}}{{IPA link|n}}</big>
| {{Audio|Sv-barn.ogg|''ba'''rn'''''|help=no}}<ref name="retroflex"/>
| ''[[Retroflex consonant|retroflex]]'' {{IPA|/n/}}
|-
| colspan="2" style="text-align: center;" | <big>{{IPA link|ŋ}}</big>
| {{Audio|Sv-lång.ogg|''lå'''ng'''''|help=no}}
| lo'''ng'''
|-
| colspan="2" style="text-align: center;" | <big>{{IPA link|p}}</big>
| {{Audio|Sv-pol.ogg|'''''p'''ol''|help=no}}
| '''p'''ole
|-
| colspan="2" style="text-align: center;" | <big>{{IPA link|r}}</big>
| {{Audio|Sv-rov.ogg|'''''r'''ov''|help=no}}<ref>{{IPA|/r/}} varies considerably in different dialects: it is pronounced [[Alveolar consonant|alveolar]] or similarly (a [[trill consonant|trilled]] ''r'' when articulated clearly or in slow or formal speech; in normal speech, usually a [[flap consonant|tapped]] ''r'' or an [[alveolar approximant]]) in virtually all dialects (most consistently {{IPA|[r]}} in Finland), but in South Swedish dialects, it is [[voiced uvular trill|uvular]], similar to the Parisian French ''r''. At the beginning of a syllable, it can also be pronounced as a fricative {{IPAblink|ʐ}}, similar to in English '''''g'''enre'' or ''vi'''si'''on''.</ref>
| ''somewhat like [[American English|American]]'' wa'''t'''er ''or Scottish'' '''r'''ose
|-
| colspan="2" style="text-align: center;" | <big>{{IPA link|s}}</big>
| {{Audio|Sv-sot.ogg|'''''s'''ot''|help=no}}
| '''s'''oot
|-
| style="text-align: center;" | <big>{{IPA link|ʂ}}</big>
| style="text-align: center;" | <big>{{IPA link|r}}{{IPA link|s}}</big>
| {{Audio|Sv-torsdag.ogg|''to'''rs'''dag''|help=no}}<ref name="retroflex"/>
| ''[[Retroflex consonant|retroflex]]'' {{IPAslink|ʃ}}'', somewhat like'' '''sh'''rine
|-
| colspan="2" style="text-align: center;" | <big>{{IPA link|t}}</big>
| {{Audio|Sv-tok.ogg|'''''t'''ok''|help=no}}
| '''t'''ool
|-
| style="text-align: center;" | <big>{{IPA link|ʈ}}</big>
| style="text-align: center;" | <big>{{IPA link|r}}{{IPA link|t}}</big>
| {{Audio|Sv-parti.ogg|''pa'''rt'''i''|help=no}}<ref name="retroflex"/>
| ''[[Retroflex consonant|retroflex]]'' {{IPA|/t/}}
|-
| colspan="2" style="text-align: center;" | <big>{{IPA link|v}}</big>
| {{Audio|Sv-våt.ogg|'''''v'''åt''|help=no}}
| '''v'''ote
|-
|}
{| class="wikitable" style="margin: 1em"
|+ Rare sounds
! IPAAFA
! Contoh
! Examples
! English approximation
|-
| style="text-align: center;" | <big>{{IPA link|w}}</big>
| [[Wales|'''''W'''ales'']]
| '''W'''ales
|-
| style="text-align: center;" | <big>{{IPA link|ä|aː}}</big>
| [[Zlatan Ibrahimović|''Zl'''a'''tan'']], [[Bratislava|''Bratisl'''a'''va'']]
| f'''a'''ther
|}
 
{| class="wikitable" style="margin: 1em"
|+ [[Vowel]]s
! colspan="2" | IPAAFA
! rowspan="2" | ExamplesContoh
! rowspan="2" | English approximation
|-
! {{flagicon|Sweden}}
| style="text-align: center;" | <big>{{IPA link|ɑ}}</big>
| {{Audio|Sv-matt.ogg|''m'''a'''tt''|help=no}}
| c'''u'''t
|-
| colspan="2" style="text-align: center;" | <big>{{IPA link|ɑː}}</big>
| {{Audio|Sv-mat.ogg|''m'''a'''t''|help=no}}
| br'''a'''
|-
| colspan="2" style="text-align: center;" | <big>{{IPA link|æ}}</big>
| {{Audio|Sv-en värk.ogg|''v'''ä'''rk''|help=no}}, {{Audio|Sv-verk.ogg|''v'''e'''rk''|help=no}}<ref name="rhotic">Before {{IPA|/r/}}, the quality of non-high front vowels is changed: the unrounded vowels {{IPA|/ɛ/}} and {{IPA|/ɛː/}} are lowered to {{IPAblink|æ}} and {{IPAblink|æː}}, whereas the rounded {{IPA|/œ/}} and {{IPA|/øː/}} are lowered to open-mid {{IPAblink|œ̫|œ}} and {{IPAblink|œ̫|œː}}. For simplicity, no distinction is made between the mid {{IPAblink|œ̫˔|œ˔}} and the open-mid {{IPAblink|œ̫|œ}}, with both being transcribed as {{angbr IPA|œ}}. Note that younger speakers use lower allophones {{IPAblink|ɶ}} and {{IPAblink|ɶː}}.</ref>
| tr'''a'''p
|-
| colspan="2" style="text-align: center;" | <big>{{IPA link|æː}}</big>
| {{Audio|Sv-ära.ogg|'''''ä'''ra''|help=no}}<ref name="rhotic"/>
| h'''a'''m
|-
| colspan="2" style="text-align: center;" | <big>{{IPA link|eː}}</big>
| {{Audio|Sv-fet.ogg|''f'''e'''t''|help=no}}
| m'''ay'''or
|-
| style="text-align: center;" | <big>{{IPA link|ɛ}}</big>
| style="text-align: center;" | <big>{{IPA link|e̞|e}}</big>
| {{Audio|Sv-häll.ogg|''h'''ä'''ll''|help=no}}, {{Audio|Sv-fett.ogg|''f'''e'''tt''|help=no}}
| s'''e'''ll
|-
| style="text-align: center;" | <big>{{IPA link|ɛː}}</big>
| style="text-align: center;" | <big>{{IPA link|eː}}</big>
| {{Audio|Sv-häl.ogg|''h'''ä'''l''|help=no}}
| ''[[Received Pronunciation|RP]]'' p'''air'''
|-
| style="text-align: center;" | <big>{{IPA link|ɪ}}</big>
| style="text-align: center;" | <big>{{IPA link|i}}</big>
| {{Audio|Sv-sill.ogg|''s'''i'''ll''|help=no}}
| h'''i'''t
|-
| colspan="2" style="text-align: center;" | <big>{{IPA link|iː}}</big>
| {{Audio|Sv-sil.ogg|''s'''i'''l''|help=no}}
| l'''ea'''ve
|-
| style="text-align: center;" | <big>{{IPA link|ɔ}}</big>
| style="text-align: center;" | <big>{{IPA link|o̞|o}}</big>
| {{Audio|Sv-moll.ogg|''m'''o'''ll''|help=no}}<ref name="roundedness">In Sweden, {{IPA|[{{IPA link|ɔ}}, {{IPA link|o̫|oː}}, {{IPA link|œ̫˔|œ}}, {{IPA link|œ̫|œː}}, {{IPA link|ø̫|øː}}, {{IPA link|ʏ̫|ʏ}}, {{IPA link|y̫|yː}}]}} are [[protruded vowel|protruded]] vowels, while {{IPA|[{{IPA link|ɵ̞|ɵ}}, {{IPA link|ʏ̈|ʉ}}, {{IPA link|ʏ͍|ʉː}}, {{IPA link|ʊ͍|ʊ}}, {{IPA link|u͍|uː}}]}} are [[compressed vowel|compressed]]. Instead, {{IPA|[{{IPA link|œ͍|œ}}, {{IPA link|œ͍|œː}}, {{IPA link|ø͍|ø}}, {{IPA link|ø͍|øː}}, {{IPA link|ʉ}}, {{IPA link|ʉː}}, {{IPA link|y͍|y}}, {{IPA link|y͍|yː}}]}} are compressed, while only {{IPA|[{{IPA link|o̞|o}}, {{IPA link|o̞|oː}}, {{IPA link|u̫|u}}, {{IPA link|u̫|uː}}]}} are protruded in Finland. This makes Finland Swedish {{IPA|[y]}} and {{IPA|[yː]}} sound closer to Sweden Swedish {{IPA|[ʉ]}} and {{IPA|[ʉː]}}, which are also [[fronting (phonetics)|fronted]], rather than to their respective counterparts.</ref>
| '''o'''ff
|-
| colspan="2" style="text-align: center;" | <big>{{IPA link|o̫|oː}}</big>
| {{Audio|Sv-mål.ogg|''m'''å'''l''|help=no}}<ref name="roundedness"/>
| fl'''oo'''r
|-
| rowspan="2" style="text-align: center;" |<big>{{IPA link|œ̫˔|œ}}</big>
| style="text-align: center;" |<big>{{IPA link|ø}}</big>
| {{Audio|Sv-nött.ogg|''n'''ö'''tt''|help=no}}<ref name="roundedness"/>
| rowspan="2" | ''somewhat like'' h'''ur'''t
|-
| style="text-align: center;" | <big>{{IPA link|œ}}</big>
| colspan="2" style="text-align: center;" | <big>{{IPA link|œ̫|œː}}</big>
| {{Audio|Sv-öra.ogg|'''''ö'''ra''|help=no}}<ref name=rhotic/><ref name="roundedness"/>
| rowspan="2" | ''somewhat like'' h'''er'''d
|-
| colspan="2" style="text-align: center;" | <big>{{IPA link|ø̫|øː}}</big>
* {{IPA|[ʉ]}} appears only in open syllables. In some cases, {{IPA|[ʉ]}} is the only possible realization, as in {{lang|sv|käng'''u'''r'''u'''}} {{IPA|[ˈɕɛ̌ŋːɡʉrʉ]}}, such as when {{IPA|/ɵ/}} appears in [[hiatus (linguistics)|hiatus]], as in {{lang|sv|d'''u'''ell}} {{IPA|[dʉˈɛlː]}};
* In other cases, {{IPA|[ɵ]}} is in free variation with {{IPA|[ʉ]}} so {{lang|sv|m'''u'''sik}} can be pronounced as {{Audio-IPA|Sv-musik.ogg|[mɵˈsiːk]|help=no}} or {{IPA|[mʉˈsiːk]}} ({{Harvcoltxt|Riad|2014|pp=28-29}}). For simplicity, only {{angbr IPA|ɵ}} will be used.</ref>
| rowspan="2" | m'''oo'''t
|-
| style="text-align: center;" | <big>{{IPA link|ʏ̈|ʉ}}</big>
| ''d'''u'''ell'',<br/>''käng'''u'''r'''u'''''<ref name="roundedness"/><ref name="shortu"/><ref name="closerounded1">The distinction between compressed {{IPAblink|ʏ̈|ʉ}}<!-- Not [ɵ] but the [ʉ] allophone, which has the same (near-close) height as [ʏ]. --> and protruded {{IPAblink|ʏ̫|ʏ}} is particularly difficult to hear for non-native speakers:
 
* Sweden Swedish compressed {{IPA|[ʉ]}} sounds very close to [[German language|German]] compressed {{IPAblink|ʏ͍|ʏ}} (as in ''m'''ü'''ssen'' {{Audio-IPA|De-müssen.ogg|[ˈmʏsn̩]|help=no}});
* Sweden Swedish protruded {{IPA|[ʏ]}} sounds more similar to English unrounded {{IPAblink|ɪ}} (as in ''h'''i'''t'') than to German compressed {{IPA|[ʏ]}}, and it is very close to [[Norwegian language|Norwegian]] protruded {{IPA|[ʏ]}} (as in ''n'''y'''tt'' {{IPA-no|nʏtː|}}).</ref>
* Sweden Swedish compressed {{IPA|[ʉː]}} sounds very close to German compressed {{IPAblink|y͍|yː}} (as in '''''ü'''ben'' {{Audio-IPA|De-at-üben.ogg|[ˈyːbn̩]|help=no}});
* Sweden Swedish protruded {{IPA|[yː]}} sounds more similar to English unrounded {{IPAblink|iː}} (as in ''l'''ea'''ve'') than to German compressed {{IPA|[yː]}}, and it is very close to Norwegian protruded {{IPA|[yː]}} (as in ''l'''y'''s'' {{IPA-no|lyːs|}}).</ref>
| m'''oo'''d
|-
| style="text-align: center;" | <big>{{IPA link|ʊ͍|ʊ}}</big>
| style="text-align: center;" | <big>{{IPA link|u}}</big>
| {{Audio|Sv-bott.ogg|''b'''o'''tt''|help=no}}<ref name="roundedness"/>
| p'''u'''t
|-
| colspan="2" style="text-align: center;" | <big>{{IPA link|u͍|uː}}</big>
| {{Audio|Sv-bot.ogg|''b'''o'''t''|help=no}}<ref name="roundedness"/>
| f'''oo'''l
|-
| style="text-align: center;" | <big>{{IPA link|ʏ̫|ʏ}}</big>
| style="text-align: center;" | <big>{{IPA link|y}}</big>
| {{Audio|Sv-syll.ogg|''s'''y'''ll''|help=no}}<ref name="roundedness"/><ref name="closerounded1"/>
| ''somewhat like'' c'''u'''te
|-
| colspan="2" style="text-align: center;" | <big>{{IPA link|yʷ|yː}}</big>
| {{Audio|Sv-syl.ogg|''s'''y'''l''|help=no}}<ref name="roundedness"/><ref name="closerounded2"/>
| ''somewhat like'' c'''u'''be
|}
 
{| class="wikitable" style="margin: 1em"
|+ [[Suprasegmentals]]
! colspan="2" | IPAAFA
! rowspan="2" | ExamplesContoh
! rowspan="2" | ExplanationKeterangan
|-
! {{flagicon|Sweden}}
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