Perbezaan antara semakan "Keflatulenan"

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'''Keflatulenan''' atau '''flatulens''' merupakan kehadiran sebatian gas dalam saluran penceranaanpencernaan [[mamalia]] yang merupakan hasil sampingan proses penceranaanpencernaan. Campuran gas sedemikian dikenali sebagai '''kentut''', dan dibebaskan melalui dubur.
 
== Penjelasan ==
Kentut dibebaskan dengan tekanan melalui [[dubur]], dengan mana, akibat otot sphincter[[sfinkter dubur]] bertenang secara sengaja atau tidak sengaja. Ini membebaskan gas dari rektum bahagian bawah. Asasnya ini terjadi apabila tekanan kentut dalam rektummelampauirektum melampaui keupayaan sphinctersfinkter dubur untuk menahankannyamenahannya. Bergantung kepada keadaan semasa [[sphinctersfinkter]] (tenang/tegang) dan kedudukan punggung, ini seringkali menghasilkan samaadasama ada bunyi bergemerisik atau bunyi trumpet, tetapi ia juga boleh berlaku secara senyap. Komponen bau (''olfactory components'')olfaktori kentut termasuk sebatian [[skatole]], [[indoleindola]], dan [[sulfur]].<ref>{{cite web
|url=http://www.patient.co.uk/showdoc/40000086/
|title=Flatulence and wind
|publisher=Patient UK
|accessdate=2006-12-11
}}</ref> Gas tidak berbau kebanyakannya merupakan [[nitrogen]] (dihadam), [[karbon dioksida]] (dihasilkan oleh organisma aerobik atau dihadam), dan [[hidrogen]] (dihasilkan oleh mikrobemikrob yang sama), termasuk juga sejumlah kecimkecil [[oksigen]] (ditelan) dan [[methanemetana]] (dihasilkan oleh [[organisma anaerobik]]).<ref>{{cite journal| author=Suarez F| coauthors=Furne J, Springfield J, Levitt M| title=Insights into human colonic physiology obtained from the study of flatus composition| journal=Am J Physiol| year=1997| volume=272 (5 Pt 1)| pages=G1028–33|pmid=9176210 |doi= |url=http://ajpgi.physiology.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=reprint&pmid=9176210}}</ref>
 
Kentut merupakan gas boleh terbakar, kerana kandungan methanemetana dan hidrogen yang boleh terbakar, dan keduanya terdapat dalam kentut. Apa yang kurang diketahui ialah menyalakan mancis akan menghilangkan bau dari kentut. Ini kerana bau kentut datangnya dari hidrogen sulfida (dari makanan) yang akan terurai kepada wap air dan sulfur dioksida apabila diberi haba.<ref>{{cite web | url = http://wendyzukerman.wordpress.com/ | title = Fighting Farts with Fire, by Wendy Zukerman | accessdate = 2008-6-6 | language = english | format = html | source = Webblog}}</ref>
 
== Kandungan gas kentut ==
 
<!----
 
Flatus is flammable, because methane and hydrogen are flammable gases, and they are both found in flatus. Less known, is that lighting a match will remove the odour from a flatus. The odour in flatulence comes from hydrogen sulphide (which comes from foods in people's diet). Upon lighting a match the hydrogen sulphide will decompose to form water (vapour) and sulphur dioxide. Removing the hydrogen sulphide also removes the odour. <ref>{{cite web | url = http://wendyzukerman.wordpress.com/ | title = Fighting Farts with Fire, by Wendy Zukerman | accessdate = 2008-6-6 | language = english | format = html | source = Webblog}}</ref>
 
== Composition of flatus gases ==
<!----
[[Nitrogen]] is the primary [[gas]] released during flatulence, along with [[Carbon dioxide]] which is present in higher quantities in those who drink [[carbonated beverages]] regularly. The lesser component gases [[Methane]] and [[hydrogen]] are [[flammable]], and so flatus containing adequate amounts of these can be [[Fart lighting|ignited]]. However, not all humans produce flatus that contains methane. For example, in one study of the [[feces]] of nine adults, only five of the samples contained [[archaea]] capable of producing methane.<ref>{{cite journal| author=Miller TL| coauthors=Wolin MJ, de Macario EC, Macario AJ| title=Isolation of Methanobrevibacter smithii from human feces| journal=Appl Environ Microbiol| year=1982| volume=43(1)| pages=227–32 |pmid=6798932 |pmc=241804 |doi= |url=http://aem.asm.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=6798932}}</ref> Similar results are found in samples of gas obtained from within the [[rectum]].
===Dietary===
{{Refimprove|section|date=April 2008}}
Certain [[spice]]s have been reported to counteract the production of intestinal gas, most notably [[cumin]]{{Fact|date=February 20072008}}, [[coriander]]{{Fact|date=February 20072008}}, [[caraway]] and the closely related [[ajwain]], [[turmeric]], [[asafoetida]] (hing), [[epazote]], and [[kombu]] [[kelp]] (a Japanese [[seaweed]]).{{Fact|date=March 20072008}} Most starches, including potatoes, corn, noodles, and wheat, produce gas as they are broken down in the large intestine. Rice is the only starch that does not cause gas.<ref>''[http://digestive.niddk.nih.gov/ddiseases/pubs/gas/index.htm Gas in the Digestive Tract]'' a publication of National Digestive Diseases Information Clearinghouse, part of the US National Institute of Health</ref> The amount of water-soluble [[oligosaccharide]] in beans that may contribute to production of intestinal gas is reputed to be reduced by a long period of soaking followed by boiling,{{Fact|date=March 20072008}} but at a cost of also leaching out other water-soluble nutrients.{{Fact|date=March 20072008}} Also, intestinal gas can be reduced by fermenting the beans, and making them less gas-inducing, and/or by cooking them in the liquor from a previous batch{{Fact|date=March 20072008}}. ''[[Lactobacillus casei]]'' and ''[[Lactobacillus plantarum]]'' have recently been hypothesized<!-- Never, never, NEVER EVER use the word "PROVEN" in a scientific article. Science hypothesizes, tests hypotheses, and accepts hypotheses that have not yet been DISproven. Science never proves anything! --> as being responsible for this effect.<ref>{{cite web|title=Study shows secret to gas-free beans|url=http://web.archive.org/web/20060502110835/http://reuters.myway.com/article/20060426/2006-04-26T170153Z_01_N25328545_RTRIDST_0_ODD-BEANS-DC-DC.html|date=2006-04-26|accessdate=2007-09-10}}</ref> Some [[legume]]s also stand up to prolonged cooking, which can help break down the oligosaccharides into simple sugars. [[fermentation (food)|Fermentation]] also breaks down oligosaccharides, which is why fermented bean products such as [[miso]] and [[tofu]] are less likely to produce as much intestinal gas{{Fact|date=March 20072008}}).
 
[[Probiotic]]s ([[yogurt]], [[kefir]], etc.) are reputed to reduce flatulence when used to restore balance to the normal intestinal flora.<ref>Rubin J. and J. Brasco, ''Restoring Your Digestive Health'' (2003).</ref> Yogurt contains ''[[Lactobacillus acidophilus]]'' which may be useful in reducing flatulence{{Fact|date=MarchMac 20072008}}). ''[[Lactobacillus acidophilus|L. acidophilus]]'' may make the intestines more acidic, thus maintaining the natural balance of fermentation processes.{{Fact|date=MarchMac 20072008}} ''[[Lactobacillus acidophilus|L. acidophilus]]'' is available in supplements (non-dairy is reputedly best{{Fact|date=MarchMac 20072008}}). [[Prebiotics]], which generally are non-digestible oligosaccharides, such as [[fructooligosaccharide]], generally increase flatulence in a similar way as described for lactose intolerance.{{Fact|date=MarchMac 20072008}}
 
Medicinal [[Activated carbon|activated charcoal]] tablets (brand name CharcoCaps) have also been reported as effective in reducing both odor and quantity of flatus when taken immediately before food that is likely to cause flatulence later.{{Fact|date=MarchMac 20072008}}
 
===Pharmacological===
</ref> Preparations containing [[simethicone]] reportedly operate by promoting the coalescence of smaller bubbles into larger ones more easily passed from the body, either by [[burp]]ing or flatulence. Such preparations do not decrease the total amount of gas generated in or passed from the colon, but make the bubbles larger and thereby allowing them to be passed more easily.<ref name="brecevic" />
 
Often it may be helpful to ingest small quantities of [[acid]]ic liquids with meals, such as [[lemon juice]] or [[vinegar]], to stimulate the production of [[gastric]] [[hydrochloric acid]]. In turn, acid ingestion may increase normal [[gastric enzyme]] and acid production, facilitating normal [[digestion]] and perhaps limiting intestinal gas production. Ingestion of [[bromelain]]- or [[papain]]-containing supplements (such as raw [[pineapple]] or [[papaya]], respectively,) may be helpful.{{Fact|date=MarchMac 20072008}}
 
[[Odor]] from flatulence, caused by the intestinal bacteria called microflora in the bowel, can be treated by taking [[bismuth subgallate]]. [[Bismuth subgallate]] is commonly used by individuals who have had [[ostomy]] surgery, [[bariatric surgery]], [[fecal incontinence]] and [[irritable bowel syndrome]].<ref>{{cite journal| author=Turnbull G| title=The Ostomy Files:The Issue of Oral Medications and a Fecal Ostomy| journal=Ostomy/Wound Management|year=2005| volume=51| pages=14–16}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.cancer.org/docroot/CRI/content/CRI_2_6x_Colostomy.asp|title=Colostomy Guide|date=2006-01-04|accessdate=2007-09-10}}</ref>
Sungguhpun kentut biasanya secara umum dianggap kejadian malang dalam situasi umum, kentut, dalam sesetengah keadaan digunakan sebagai tambahan kepada jenaka ("tarik jari dan saya kentut"), atau aktiviti jenaka dalam dirnya sendiri.
 
== Rujukan ==
{{wikisourcepar|Harper%27s_New_Monthly_Magazine/Vol. XLIV/No._261/February_1872/Editor%27s_Scientific_Recordujukan /Cure_of_Flatulence|A cure for flatulence from 1872}}
{{reflist}}
* {{cite book | author = D. von Schmausen | title = Official Rules, New World Odor International Freestyle Farting Championship | publisher = LULU | year 2002 | id = ISBN 978-1-4357-0919-5}}
 
== Pautan luar ==
{{wiktionarypar2|flatus|flatulence}}
*[http://www.fartsurvey.com The Farting Survey (fartsurvey.com)] - a comprehensive, worldwide survey about farts and farting.
*[http://www.freefarts.com Farts for websites] - Fart sounds that people may add to their websites.
*[http://edition.cnn.com/2003/WORLD/asiapcf/auspac/06/19/newzealand.gastax/ CNN - Farmers let rip on flatulence tax]
 
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[[Kategori:Kentut]]
[[Kategori:MethaneMetana]]
 
[[ar:ضرطة]]
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