Perbezaan antara semakan "Virus influenza A subjenis H1N1"

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Jenis-jenis virus influenza A diberikan satu nombor H dan satu nombor N berdasarkan bentuk apa bagi kedua-dua protein ini didapati. Terdapat 16 subjenis H dan 9 subjenis N diketahui dalam burung, tetapi hanya H 1, 2, dan 3, dan N 1 dan 2 biasa didapati dalam manusia.<ref name=Lynch>{{cite journal |author=Lynch JP, Walsh EE |title=Influenza: evolving strategies in treatment and prevention |journal=Semin Respir Crit Care Med |volume=28 |issue=2 |pages=144–58 |year=2007 |month=April |pmid=17458769 |doi=10.1055/s-2007-976487}}</ref>
 
==Spanish flu==
{{Main|1918 flu pandemic}}
The [[1918 flu pandemic|Spanish flu]], also known as ''La Gripe Española'', or ''La Pesadilla'', was an unusually severe and deadly [[Strain (biology)|strain]] of [[avian influenza]], a [[virus|viral]] [[infectious]] [[disease]], that killed some 50 million to 100 million people worldwide over about a year in 1918 and 1919. It is thought to be one of the most deadly [[pandemic]]s in human [[history]]. It was caused by the H1N1 type of [[influenza]] virus.<ref>http://www.fas.org/programs/ssp/bio/factsheets/H1N1factsheet.html</ref>
 
The 1918 flu caused an unusual number of deaths, possibly due to it causing a [[cytokine storm]] in the body.<ref>{{cite journal |author=Kobasa D, Jones SM, Shinya K, ''et al'' |title=Aberrant innate immune response in lethal infection of macaques with the 1918 influenza virus |journal=Nature |volume=445 |issue=7125 |pages=319–23 |year=2007 |month=January |pmid=17230189 |doi=10.1038/nature05495 |last12=Alimonti |first12=JB |last13=Fernando |first13=L |last14=Li |first14=Y |last15=Katze |first15=MG |last16=Feldmann |first16=H |last17=Kawaoka |first17=Y}}</ref><ref>{{cite journal |author=Kash JC, Tumpey TM, Proll SC, ''et al'' |title=Genomic analysis of increased host immune and cell death responses induced by 1918 influenza virus |journal=Nature |volume=443 |issue=7111 |pages=578–81 |year=2006 |month=October |pmid=17006449 |pmc=2615558 |doi=10.1038/nature05181 |url=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pubmed&pubmedid=17006449 |last12=Katze |first12=MG}}</ref> (The current [[H5N1]] [[bird flu]], also an Influenza A virus, has a similar effect.)<ref> {{cite journal |author=Cheung CY, Poon LL, Lau AS, ''et al'' |title=Induction of proinflammatory cytokines in human macrophages by influenza A (H5N1) viruses: a mechanism for the unusual severity of human disease? |journal=Lancet |volume=360 |issue=9348 |pages=1831–7 |year=2002 |month=December |pmid=12480361 |doi=10.1016/S0140-6736(02)11772-7}}</ref> The Spanish flu virus infected lung cells, leading to overstimulation of the [[immune system]] via release of [[cytokine]]s into the [[lung]] tissue. This leads to extensive [[leukocyte]] migration towards the lungs, causing destruction of lung tissue and secretion of liquid into the organ. This makes it difficult for the patient to breathe. In contrast to other pandemics, which mostly kill the old and the very young, the 1918 pandemic killed unusual numbers of young adults, which may have been due to their healthy immune systems mounting a too-strong and damaging response to the infection.<ref name=Palese>{{cite journal |author=Palese P |title=Influenza: old and new threats |journal=Nat. Med. |volume=10 |issue=12 Suppl |pages=S82–7 |year=2004 |month=December |pmid=15577936 |doi=10.1038/nm1141}}</ref>
 
The term "Spanish" flu was coined because [[Spain]] was at the time the only [[Europe]]an country where the press were printing reports of the outbreak, which had killed thousands in the armies fighting [[World War I]]. Other countries suppressed the news in order to protect morale.<ref name=Barry>{{cite book|last=Barry|first=John M.|authorlink=John M. Barry|title=The Great Influenza: The Epic Story of the Greatest Plague in History|publisher=Viking Penguin|year=2004|isbn=0-670-89473-7|series=}}</ref>
 
==Russian flu==
:''See [[Influenza A virus subtype H2N2#Russian flu]] for the 1889–1890 Russian flu''
 
The more recent Russian flu was a 1977–1978 flu [[epidemic]] caused by strain ''Influenza A/USSR/90/77 (H1N1)''. It infected mostly children and young adults under 23 because a similar strain was prevalent in 1947–57, causing most adults to have substantial immunity. The virus was included in the 1978–1979 [[influenza vaccine]].<ref> [http://www.cnn.com/interactive/health/0412/timeline.flu/content.6.html CNN] interactive health timeline box ''1977: Russian flu scare''</ref><ref> [http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,948035,00.html Time magazine] article ''Invasion from the Steppes'' published February 20, 1978</ref><ref> [http://www.globalsecurity.org/security/ops/hsc-scen-3_pandemic-influenza.htm Global Security] article ''Pandemic Influenza'' subsection ''Recent Pandemic Flu Scares''</ref><ref> [http://www.epi.hss.state.ak.us/bulletins/docs/b1978_09.htm State of Alaska Epidemiology Bulletin] Bulletin No. 9 - April 21, 1978 - Russian flu confirmed in Alaska</ref>
 
==2009 A(H1N1) pandemic==
[[Image:AntigenicShift HiRes.png|thumb|200px|right|Illustration of influenza [[antigenic shift]].]]
{{Main|2009 flu pandemic}}
 
In the [[2009 flu pandemic]], the [[2009 flu pandemic virus|virus]] isolated from patients in the United States was found to be made up of genetic elements from four different flu viruses – North American swine influenza, North American avian influenza, human influenza, and swine influenza virus typically found in Asia and Europe – "an unusually [[mongrelization|mongrelised]] mix of genetic sequences."<ref name="NewSci-20090426-dn17025"> {{cite web|url=http://www.newscientist.com/article/dn17025-deadly-new-flu-virus-in-us-and-mexico-may-go-pandemic.html|title=Deadly new flu virus in US and Mexico may go pandemic|publisher=New Scientist|date=2009-04-26|accessdate=2009-04-26}}</ref> This new strain appears to be a result of [[reassortment]] of [[human influenza]] and [[swine influenza]] viruses, in all four different strains of subtype H1N1.
 
Preliminary genetic characterization found that the [[hemagglutinin (influenza)|hemagglutinin]] (HA) gene was similar to that of swine flu viruses present in U.S. pigs since 1999, but the [[neuraminidase]] (NA) and [[matrix protein]] (M) genes resembled versions present in European swine flu isolates. The six genes from American swine flu are themselves mixtures of swine flu, bird flu, and human flu viruses.<ref> {{cite web|url=http://www.bbc.co.uk/blogs/newsnight/susanwatts/2009/04/experts_concerned_about_potent.html|title=Experts concerned about potential flu pandemic|publisher=BBC|author=Susan Watts|date=2009-04-25}}</ref> While viruses with this genetic makeup had not previously been found to be circulating in humans or pigs, there is no formal national surveillance system to determine what viruses are circulating in pigs in the U.S.<ref> {{cite web|url=http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5815a5.htm|title=Swine Influenza A (H1N1) Infection in Two Children --- Southern California, March--April 2009|date=2009-04-22|publisher=CDC MMWR}}</ref>
 
On June 11, 2009, the [[WHO]] declared an H1N1 pandemic, moving the alert level to phase 6, marking the first global pandemic since the 1968 [[Hong Kong flu]].<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.blippitt.com/h1n1-pandemic-official|title=H1N1 Pandemic - It's Official|publisher=N/A|author=Blippitt|date=2009-06-11}}</ref>
 
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