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National Railroad Passenger Corporation, juga dikenali sebagai Amtrak, ialah sebuah perkhidmatan kereta api penumpang yang menyediakan perkhidmatan antarabandar sederhana dan jarak jauh di Amerika Syarikat bersebelahan dan sembilan bandar raya Kanada.

National Railroad Passenger Corporation (Amtrak)
Logo
Peta sistem
Peta geografi sistem Amtrak
Tanda pelaporanAMTK, AMTZ
Tarikh operasi1 Mei 1971[1][2]–kini
48 tahun yang lalu
Tolok landasan4 kaki 8 12 in (1,435 mm) tolok piawai
Pengelektrikan
  • 12 kV, 25 Hz AC
  • Northeast Corridor (Washington, D.C. – New Haven)
  • Laluan Utama Philadelphia ke Harrisburg (Keystone Corridor)
  • 25 kV, 60 Hz AC
  • Northeast Corridor (New Haven – Boston)
Panjang44 laluan: 21,400 batu (34,400 km)
Trek dimiliki: 730 batu (1,170 km)
Ibu pejabat1 Massachusetts Ave, N.W., Washington, D.C.
Laman sesawangwww.amtrak.com
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Ditubuhkan 47 tahun yang lalu pada tahun 1971 sebagai sebuah syarikat awam semata-mata untuk mengendalikan banyak perkhidmatan kereta penumpang A.S.,[3] ia menerima gabungan subsidi negeri dan persekutuan tetapi diuruskan sebagai organisasi untung.[4] Ibu pejabat Amtrak terletak satu blok di barat Union Station di Washington, D.C.[5]

Amtrak berkhidmat lebih daripada 500 destinasi di 46 negeri dan tiga wilayah Kanada, beroperasi lebih daripada 300 kereta api setiap hari sepanjang 21,400 batu (34,000 km) trek. Beberapa bahagian trek membolehkan kereta api berjalan secepat 150 mph (240 km / j).[6]

Pada tahun fiskal 2017, Amtrak berkhidmat 31.7 juta penumpang dan memperoleh $ 3.3 bilion hasil, sementara menggaji lebih daripada 20,000 orang. Hampir 87,000 penumpang menaiki lebih daripada 300 Amtrak setiap hari.[6] Hampir dua pertiga penumpang datang dari 10 kawasan metropolitan yang terbesar; 83% penumpang bergerak di laluan lebih pendek daripada 400 batu (645 km).[7]

Nama Amtrak ialah portmanteau dari perkataan America dan trak, yang kedua itu sendiri merupakan ejaan sensasi track.[4]

Isi kandungan

CatatanSunting

  1. ^ "Amtrak winner". Spokane Daily Chronicle. (Washington). UPI. May 1, 1971. m/s. 12. 
  2. ^ "Last court test fails to clear Amtrak rails". Lewiston Morning Tribune. (Idaho). Associated Press. May 1, 1971. m/s. 1. 
  3. ^ Land, John S. (October 17, 1971). "Amtrak isn't railroading improvements through to passengers". Eugene Register-Guard. (Oregon). Associated Press. m/s. 8A. 
  4. ^ a b "Amtrak National Fact Sheet FY16" (PDF). Amtrak. July 2017. Dicapai October 13, 2017. 
  5. ^ "Amtrak Fact Sheet, Fiscal Year 2017 District of Columbia" (PDF). Amtrak Government Affairs. November 2017. Dicapai June 25, 2018. 
  6. ^ a b "Amtrak Company Profile (FY 2017)" (PDF). Amtrak. March 18, 2018. Dicapai June 25, 2018. 
  7. ^ Puentes, Robert; Adie Tomer; and Joseph Kane (March 2013). "A New Alignment: Strengthening America's Commitment to Passenger Rail". The Brookings Institution. Diarkibkan daripada asal pada December 3, 2013. Dicapai January 15, 2015. 

RujukanSunting

  • Carper, Robert S. (1968). American Railroads in Transition; The Passing of the Steam Locomotives. A. S. Barnes. ISBN 978-0-498-06678-8. 
  • Edmonson, Harold A. (2000). Journey to Amtrak: The year history rode the passenger train. Kalmbach Books. ISBN 978-0-89024-023-6. 
  • Glischinski, Steve (1997). Santa Fe Railway. Osceola, Wisconsin: Motorbooks International. ISBN 978-0-7603-0380-1. 
  • Government Accountability Office (October 2005). "Amtrak Management: Systemic Problems Require Actions to Improve Efficiency, Effectiveness, and Accountability" (PDF). Diarkibkan (PDF) daripada yang asal pada November 25, 2005. Dicapai November 23, 2005. 
  • Hosmer, Howard (1958). Railroad Passenger Train Deficit (Laporan). Interstate Commerce Commission. 31954.
  • McCommons, James (2009). Waiting on a Train: The Embattled Future of Passenger Rail Service. White River Junction, Vermont: Chelsea Green. ISBN 978-1-60358-064-9. 
  • McKinney, Kevin (June 1991). "At the dawn of Amtrak". Trains. 
  • Office of Inspector General for the Department of Transportation (July 10, 2012). "Analysis of the Causes of AMTRAK Train Delays" (PDF). United States Department of Transportation. OCLC 862979061. 
  • Peterman, David Randall (September 28, 2017). Amtrak: Overview (PDF). Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service. 
  • Saunders, Richard (2003). Main Lines: Rebirth of the North American Railroads, 1970–2002. DeKalb, Illinois: Northern Illinois University Press. ISBN 0-87580-316-4. 
  • Schafer, Mike (June 1991). "Amtrak's Atlas: 1971–1991". Trains. 
  • Stover, John F. (1997). American Railroads (edisi 2nd). Chicago: University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-77657-3. 
  • Thoms, William E. (1973). Reprieve for the Iron Horse: The AMTRAK Experiment–Its Predecessors and Prospects. Baton Rouge, LA: Claitor's Publishing Division. OCLC 1094744. 
  • Vranich, Joseph (1997). Derailed: What Went Wrong and What to Do about America's Passenger Trains. New York: St. Martin's Press. ISBN 0-3121-7182-X. 
  • Vranich, Joseph (2004). End of the Line: The Failure of Amtrak Reform and the Future of America's Passenger Trains. Washington, D.C.: AEI Press. ISBN 0-8447-4203-1. 
  • Wilner, Frank N. (1994). The Amtrak Story. Omaha, NE: Simmons-Boardman. ISBN 0-9113-8216-X. 
  • Zimmermann, Karl R. (1981). Amtrak at Milepost 10. PTJ Publishing. ISBN 0-937658-06-5. 

Bacaan lanjutSunting

  • Baron, David P. (August 1990). "Distributive Politics and the Persistence of Amtrak". The Journal of Politics. 52 (3): 883–913. 
  • Hanus, Chris; Shaske, John (2009). USA West by Train: The Complete Amtrak Travel Guide. Way of the Rail Publishing. ISBN 978-0-9730897-6-9. 
  • Pitt, John (2008). USA by Rail. Bradt Travel Guides. ISBN 978-1-84162-255-2. 
  • Wilner, Frank N. (2013). Amtrak: Past, Present, Future. Simmons-Boardman Books. ISBN 978-0-911-382600. 

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