Dua [[cuaran melintang]] dan satu [[cuaran spina]] terletak di posterior (belakang) badan vertebra. Cuaran spina keluar dari arah belakang, satu cuaran melintang keluar ke arah kiri, dan satu lagi ke kanan. Cuaran spina di bahagian serviks dan lumbar boleh dirasai melalui kulit. [[Sendi Zigapofisis|Faset]] [[Tulang#Terminology|artikular]] superior dan inferior di setiap vertebra bertindak untuk mengehadkan rentang gerak sebanyak mungkin. Faset ini dihubungkan oleh bahagian nipis lengkung saraf yang digelar ''[[pars articularis]]''.
[[Image:Orientation.PNG|thumb|right|300px|Orientation of vertebral column on surface. T3 is at level of medial part of [[spine of scapula]]. T7 is at [[inferior angle of the scapula]]. L4 is at highest point of [[iliac crest]]. S2 is at the level of [[posterior superior iliac spine]]. Furthermore, C7 is easily localized as a prominence at the lower part of the neck.<ref>Anatomy Compendium (Godfried Roomans and Anca Dragomir)</ref>]]
Note: For more detailed information, see [[ Cervical vertebrae]]''
These are generally small and delicate. Their spinous processes are short ( with the exception of C2 and C7, which have palpable spinous processes), and often split. Numbered top-to-bottom from C1-C7, [[atlas ( anatomy)|atlas]] (C1) and [[ axis ( anatomy)| axis]] (C2), are the vertebrae that allow the [[ neck]] and [[ head]] so much movement. For the most part, the [[ atlanto-occipital joint]] allows the [[ skull]] to move up and down, while the [[atlanto -axial joint]] allows the upper neck to twist left and right. The axis also sits upon the first intervertebral disk of the spinal column. All [[ mammal]] s except [[ manatee]] s and [[sloth]] s have seven cervical vertebrae, whatever the length of the neck.
Note: For more detailed information, see [[ Thoracic vertebrae]]''
Their spinous processes have surfaces that [[Bone#Terminology|articulate]] with the [[rib]]s. Some rotation can occur between the thoracic vertebrae, but their connection with the rib cage prevents much ''flexion'' or other excursion. They may also be known as 'dorsal vertebrae', in the human context.
''Note: For more detailed information, see [[Lumbar vertebrae]]''
These vertebrae are very robust in construction, as they must support more weight than other vertebrae. They allow significant ''flexion'' and ''extension'', moderate lateral flexion (sidebending), and a small degree of rotation. The discs between these vertebrae create a [[lumbar]] lordosis (curvature that is concave posteriorly) in the human spine.
[[Image:Illu vertebral column.jpg|thumb|right|250px]]
Note: For more detailed information, see [[ Sacral vertebrae]]''
There are 5 vertebrae (S1-S5). They are fused in maturity, with no [[ intervertebral disc]] s.
Note: For more detailed information, see [[ Coccygeal vertebrae]]''
There are 3-5 vertebrae (Co1-Co5), with no [[intervertebral disc]]s. Many animals have a greater number of "tail vertebrae" and, in animals, they are more commonly known as "caudal vertebrae." Pain at the [[coccyx|coccyx (tailbone)]] is known as [[coccydynia]].
== Nota kaki ==