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Giordano Bruno (//; bahasa Melayu: [dʒorˈdano ˈbruno]; Bahasa Latin: Iordanus Brunus Nolanus; 1548 – 17 Februari 1600), lahir Filippo Bruno, ialah seorang ahli rahib, ahli falsafah, ahli matematik, penyair, dan teori kosmologi Dominica Itali.[3] Beliau terkenal dengan teori-teori kosmologinya, yang secara konsep memperluaskan model Copernican yang baru. Beliau mencadangkan bahawa bintang-bintang itu hanyalah matahari yang jauh dikelilingi oleh eksoplanet mereka sendiri dan menimbulkan kemungkinan bahawa planet-planet ini dapat memupuk kehidupan mereka sendiri (kedudukan filsafat yang dikenal sebagai pluralisme kosmik). Beliau juga menegaskan bahawa alam semesta sebenarnya tidak terhingga dan tidak mempunyai tubuh samawi di pusatnya.

Giordano Bruno
Giordano Bruno - Potret dari "Livre du recteur" dibuat pada 1578.
LahirFilippo Bruno
1548
Nola, Kerajaan Napoli
Meninggal dunia17 Februari 1600 (berumur 51–52)
Rome, Negeri-negeri Paus
Hukuman mati melalui pembakaran
ZamanFalsafah Renaissance
AliranHumanisme Renaissance
Neoplatonisme
Minat utamaFalsafah, kosmologi, dan matematik
Idea pentingPluralisme kosmos

Bermula pada tahun 1593, Bruno telah dibicarakan untuk bidaah oleh Pertanyaan Rom atas dakwaan penafian beberapa teras doktrin Katolik, termasuk penghabisan kekal, Tritunggal, ketuhanan Kristus, keperawanan Maria, dan transubstantiation. Pantheisme Bruno juga merupakan perkara yang serius,[4] seperti ajaran transmigrasi jiwa (penjelmaan semula) beliau. The Inquisition mendapati dia bersalah, dan dia dibakar di atas kekalahan di Campo de 'Fiori di Rom pada tahun 1600. Selepas kematiannya, beliau mendapat perhatian besar, terutama disambut oleh pengulas abad ke-19 dan awal abad ke-20 yang menganggapnya sebagai mati syahid untuk sains,[5] walaupun ahli sejarah telah membahaskan sejauh mana percubaan bidaahnya adalah tindak balas terhadap pandangan astronominya atau aspek lain dari falsafah dan teologinya.[6][7][8][9][10] Kes Bruno masih dianggap mercu tanda dalam sejarah pemikiran bebas dan sains yang muncul.[11][12][13]

Selain kosmologi, Bruno juga menulis secara meluas mengenai seni ingatan, sebuah kumpulan teknik dan prinsip mnemonik yang teratur. Ahli sejarah Frances Yates berpendapat bahawa Bruno sangat dipengaruhi oleh astrologi Arab (khususnya falsafah Averroes)[14] Neoplatonisme, Hermetisme Renaisans, dan legenda yang mengelilingi tuhan Mesir Thoth.[15] Kajian-kajian lain tentang Bruno telah memberi tumpuan kepada pendekatan kualitatifnya terhadap matematik dan penerapan konsep-konsep spatial geometri kepada bahasa.[16]

Yayasan Giordano BrunoSunting

Itu Giordano Bruno Yayasan (jerman: Giordano-Bruno-Stiftung) adalah non-profit yayasan berdasarkan di Jerman yang mengejar "Sokongan Evolusi Kemanusiaan". Ia didirikan oleh usahawan Herbert Steffen pada tahun 2004. Itu Giordano Bruno Yayasan dianggap kritikal agama, yang ia menggambarkan seperti buruk untuk evolusi budaya.

Anugerah Peringatan Giordano Bruno Sunting

Itu SETI Liga membuat anugerah tahunan menghormati memori Giordano Bruno untuk seseorang yang layak atau orang-orang yang telah membuat sumbangan penting untuk praktek SETI (mencari extraterrestrial intelijen). Anugerah telah dicadangkan oleh sosiologi Donald Tarter pada tahun 1995 di 395th ulang tahun Bruno kematian. Trofi disampaikan dipanggil Bruno.

Objek astronomi yang dinamakan sempena BrunoSunting

22 km dampak kawah Giordano Bruno pada sisi terjauh Bulan ... dinamakan sempena nama beliau, seperti yang utama sabuk asteroid 5148 Giordano dan 13223 Cenaceneri; kedua bernama setelah falsafah dialog La Cena de le Ceneri ("rabu Abu makan Malam") (lihat di atas).

KaryaSunting

  • De umbris idearum (The Shadows of Ideas, Paris, 1582)
  • Cantus Circaeus (The Incantation of Circe, 1582)[17]
  • De compendiosa architectura et complento artis Lulli (A Compendium of Architecture and Lulli's Art, 1582)[18]
  • Candelaio (The Torchbearer or The Candle Bearer, 1582; play)
  • Ars reminiscendi (The Art of Memory, 1583)
  • Explicatio triginta sigillorum (Explanation of Thirty Seals, 1583)[19]
  • Sigillus sigillorum (The Seal of Seals, 1583)[20]
  • La Cena de le Ceneri (The Ash Wednesday Supper, 1584)
  • De la causa, principio, et uno (Concerning Cause, Principle, and Unity, 1584)
  • De l'infinito universo et mondi (On the Infinite Universe and Worlds, 1584)
  • Spaccio de la Bestia Trionfante (The Expulsion of the Triumphant Beast, London, 1584)
  • Cabala del cavallo Pegaseo (Cabal of the Horse Pegasus, 1585)
  • De gli heroici furori (The Heroic Frenzies, 1585)[21]
  • Figuratio Aristotelici Physici auditus (Figures From Aristotle's Physics, 1585)
  • Dialogi duo de Fabricii Mordentis Salernitani (Two Dialogues of Fabricii Mordentis Salernitani, 1586)
  • Idiota triumphans (The Triumphant Idiot, 1586)[22]
  • De somni interpretatione (Dream Interpretation, 1586)[23]
  • Animadversiones circa lampadem lullianam (Amendments regarding Lull's Lantern, 1586)[23]
  • Lampas triginta statuarum (The Lantern of Thirty Statues, 1586)[24]
  • Centum et viginti articuli de natura et mundo adversus peripateticos (One Hundred and Twenty Articles on Nature and the World Against the Peripatetics, 1586)[25]
  • De Lampade combinatoria Lulliana (The Lamp of Combinations according to Lull, 1587)[26]
  • De progressu et lampade venatoria logicorum (Progress and the Hunter's Lamp of Logical Methods, 1587)[27]
  • Oratio valedictoria (Valedictory Oration, 1588)[28]
  • Camoeracensis Acrotismus (The Pleasure of Dispute, 1588)[29]
  • De specierum scrutinio (1588)[30][tiada dalam ayat yang diberikan]
  • Articuli centum et sexaginta adversus huius tempestatis mathematicos atque Philosophos (One Hundred and Sixty Theses Against Mathematicians and Philosophers, 1588)[31]
  • Oratio consolatoria (Consolation Oration, 1589)[31]
  • De vinculis in genere (Of Bonds in General, 1591)[30]
  • De triplici minimo et mensura (On the Threefold Minimum and Measure, 1591)[14]
  • De monade numero et figura (On the Monad, Number, and Figure, Frankfurt, 1591)[32]
  • De innumerabilibus, immenso, et infigurabili (Of Innumerable Things, Vastness and the Unrepresentable, 1591)
  • De imaginum, signorum et idearum compositione (On the Composition of Images, Signs and Ideas, 1591)
  • Summa terminorum metaphysicorum (Handbook of Metaphysical Terms, 1595)[33][34]
  • Artificium perorandi (The Art of Communicating, 1612)

RujukanSunting

  1. ^ Leo Catana (2005). The Concept of Contraction in Giordano Bruno's Philosophy. Ashgate Pub. ISBN 9780754652618. When Bruno states in De la causa that matter provides the extension of particulars, he follows Averroes. 
  2. ^ Bouvet, Molière ; avec une notice sur le théâtre au XVIIe siècle, une biographie chronologique de Molière, une étude générale de son oeuvre, une analyse méthodique du "Malade", des notes, des questions par Alphonse (1973). Le malade imaginaire ; L'amour médecin. Paris: Bordas. m/s. 23. ISBN 2-04-006776-0. 
  3. ^ Bruno was a mathematician and philosopher, but is not considered an astronomer by the modern astronomical community, as there is no record of him carrying out physical observations, as was the case with Brahe, Kepler, and Galileo. Pogge, Richard W. http://www.astronomy.ohio-state.edu/~pogge/Essays/Bruno.html 1999.
  4. ^ Birx, Jams H.. "Giordano Bruno" The Harbinger, Mobile, AL, 11 November 1997. "Bruno was burned to death at the stake for his pantheistic stance and cosmic perspective."
  5. ^ Arturo Labriola, Giordano Bruno: Martyrs of free thought no. 1 
  6. ^ Frances Yates, Giordano Bruno and the Hermetic Tradition, Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1964, p. 450
  7. ^ Michael J. Crowe, The Extraterrestrial Life Debate 1750–1900, Cambridge University Press, 1986, p. 10, "[Bruno's] sources... seem to have been more numerous than his followers, at least until the eighteenth- and nineteenth-century revival of interest in Bruno as a supposed 'martyr for science.' It is true that he was burned at the stake in Rome in 1600, but the church authorities guilty of this action were almost certainly more distressed at his denial of Christ's divinity and alleged diabolism than at his cosmological doctrines."
  8. ^ Adam Frank, The Constant Fire: Beyond the Science vs. Religion Debate, University of California Press, 2009, p. 24, "Though Bruno may have been a brilliant thinker whose work stands as a bridge between ancient and modern thought, his persecution cannot be seen solely in light of the war between science and religion."
  9. ^ White, Michael. The Pope and the Heretic: The True Story of Giordano Bruno, the Man who Dared to Defy the Roman Inquisition, p. 7. Perennial, New York, 2002. "This was perhaps the most dangerous notion of all... If other worlds existed with intelligent beings living there, did they too have their visitations? The idea was quite unthinkable."
  10. ^ Shackelford, Joel (2009). "Myth 7 That Giordano Bruno was the first martyr of modern science". dalam Numbers, Ronald L. Galileo goes to jail and other myths about science and religion. Cambridge, Mass: Havard University Press. m/s. 66.  "Yet the fact remains that cosmological matters, notably the plurality of worlds, were an identifiable concern all along and appear in the summary document: Bruno was repeatedly questioned on these matters, and he apparently refused to recant them at the end.14 So, Bruno probably was burned alive for resolutely maintaining a series of heresies, among which his teaching of the plurality of worlds was prominent but by no means singular."
  11. ^ Gatti, Hilary (2002). Giordano Bruno and Renaissance Science: Broken Lives and Organizational Power. Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press. m/s. 18–19. Dicapai 21 March 2014. For Bruno was claiming for the philosopher a principle of free thought and inquiry which implied an entirely new concept of authority: that of the individual intellect in its serious and continuing pursuit of an autonomous inquiry… It is impossible to understand the issue involved and to evaluate justly the stand made by Bruno with his life without appreciating the question of free thought and liberty of expression. His insistence on placing this issue at the center of both his work and of his defense is why Bruno remains so much a figure of the modern world. If there is, as many have argued, an intrinsic link between science and liberty of inquiry, then Bruno was among those who guaranteed the future of the newly emerging sciences, as well as claiming in wider terms a general principle of free thought and expression. 
  12. ^ Montano, Aniello (24 November 2007). Antonio Gargano, penyunting. Le deposizioni davanti al tribunale dell'Inquisizione. Napoli: La Città del Sole. m/s. 71. In Rome, Bruno was imprisoned for seven years and subjected to a difficult trial that analyzed, minutely, all his philosophical ideas. Bruno, who in Venice had been willing to recant some theses, become increasingly resolute and declared on 21 December 1599 that he 'did not wish to repent of having too little to repent, and in fact did not know what to repent.' Declared an unrepentant heretic and excommunicated, he was burned alive in the Campo dei Fiori in Rome on Ash Wednesday, 17 February 1600. On the stake, along with Bruno, burned the hopes of many, including philosophers and scientists of good faith like Galileo, who thought they could reconcile religious faith and scientific research, while belonging to an ecclesiastical organization declaring itself to be the custodian of absolute truth and maintaining a cultural militancy requiring continual commitment and suspicion. 
  13. ^ Birx, James (11 November 1997). "Giordano Bruno". Mobile Alabama Harbinger. Dicapai 28 April 2014. To me, Bruno is the supreme martyr for both free thought and critical inquiry… Bruno's critical writings, which pointed out the hypocrisy and bigotry within the Church, along with his tempestuous personality and undisciplined behavior, easily made him a victim of the religious and philosophical intolerance of the 16th century. Bruno was excommunicated by the Catholic, Lutheran and Calvinist Churches for his heretical beliefs. The Catholic hierarchy found him guilty of infidelity and many errors, as well as serious crimes of heresy… Bruno was burned to death at the stake for his pantheistic stance and cosmic perspective. 
  14. ^ a b "Giordano Bruno". Encyclopædia Britannica. 
  15. ^ The primary work on the relationship between Bruno and Hermeticism is Frances Yates, Giordano Bruno and The Hermetic Tradition, 1964; for an alternative assessment, placing more emphasis on the Kabbalah, and less on Hermeticism, see Karen Silvia De Leon-Jones, Giordano Bruno and the Kabbalah, Yale, 1997; for a return to emphasis on Bruno's role in the development of Science, and criticism of Yates' emphasis on magical and Hermetic themes, see Hillary Gatti, Giordano Bruno and Renaissance Science, Cornell, 1999
  16. ^ Alessandro G. Farinella and Carole Preston, "Giordano Bruno: Neoplatonism and the Wheel of Memory in the 'De Umbris Idearum'", in Renaissance Quarterly, Vol. 55, No. 2, (Summer, 2002), pp. 596–624; Arielle Saiber, Giordano Bruno and the Geometry of Language, Ashgate, 2005
  17. ^ Esoteric Archives, http://www.esotericarchives.com/bruno/circaeus.htm
  18. ^ "A PERSPECTIVE ON BRUNO'S "DE COMPENDIOSA ARCHITECTURA ET COMPLEMENTO ARTIS LULLII"". JSTOR 24336760. 
  19. ^ "Thirty dangerous seals - Lines of thought". 
  20. ^ "'Meanings of "contractio" in Giordano Bruno's Sigillus sigillorum' - Staff". 
  21. ^ Esoteric Archives, http://www.esotericarchives.com/bruno/furori.htm
  22. ^ Quora, https://www.quora.com/What-was-Giordano-Brunos-exact-argument-about-the-compass-How-did-the-polemic-develop-How-vicious-was-it-and-how-much-did-it-contribute-to-his-fleeing-from-Paris
  23. ^ a b "All About Heaven - Sources returnpage". 
  24. ^ "Anima Mundi: The Rise of the World Soul Theory in Modern German Philosophy". 
  25. ^ "Giordano Bruno". 
  26. ^ "Giordano Bruno". 
  27. ^ "Progress and the Hunter's Lamp of Logical Methods". galileo. 
  28. ^ "Giordano Bruno". 
  29. ^ "Full text of "THE PLEASURE OF THE DISPUTE"". 
  30. ^ a b "Eros and Magic in the Renaissance". 
  31. ^ a b "Giordano Bruno". 
  32. ^ "De monade, numero et figura liber". Encyclopædia Britannica. 
  33. ^ "Summa Terminorum metaphysicorum". 
  34. ^ "Giordano Bruno". 

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