Tadmur

(Dilencongkan dari Palmyra)


Tadmur (/ˌpælˈmrə/; Bahasa Arab: تَدْمُر Tadmur; Tadmur: "Imej nama kota ditulis dalam tulisan Tadmur" Tadmor) ialah sebuah bandar Semitik purba di Kegabenoran Homs hari ini, Syria. Penemuan arkeologi wujud sejak zaman Neolitik, dan dokumen kali pertama menyebut bandar ini pada awal alaf kedua SM. Tadmur berubah tangan pada sebilangan peristiwa antara berbeza-beza empayar sebelum ditakluki Empayar Rom pada abad pertama Masihi.

Tadmur
  • "Imej nama kota ditulis dalam tulisan Tadmur"
  • تَدْمُر
Runtuhan Palmyra
Runtuhan Tadmur pada 2010
Ralat Lua pada baris 510 di Modul:Location_map: Tidak dapat cari takrifan peta lokasi yang ditentukan: "Modul:Peta lokasi/data/Syria" tidak wujud.
Nama alternatifTadmor
Palmyra
LokasiTadmur, Kegabenoran Homs, Syria
WilayahGurun Syria
Koordinat34°33′05″N 38°16′05″E / 34.55139°N 38.26806°E / 34.55139; 38.26806Koordinat: 34°33′05″N 38°16′05″E / 34.55139°N 38.26806°E / 34.55139; 38.26806
JenisPetempatan
Sebahagian daripadaEmpayar Tadmur
Luas80 he (200 ekar)
History
DiasaskanAlaf ke-3 SM
Ditinggalkan1932 (1932)
ZamanZaman Gangsa Pertengahan hingga Moden
BudayaAramia, Arab, Yunani-Rom
Site notes
KeadaanHancur
Hak milikAwam
PengurusanKementerian Kebudayaan Syria
Akses awamTidak dapat didatangi (dalam zon perang)
Nama rasmiTapak Palmyra
JenisBudaya
Kriteriai, ii, iv
Penetapan1980 (Sesi ke-4)
Nombor Rujukan23
WilayahNegara Arab
Terancma2013 (2013)–kini.

Bandar ini berkembang kaya daripada kafilah dagang; orang Tadmur menjadi termasyhur sebagai saudagar yang mendirikan tanah jajahan di sepanjang Jalan Sutera dan dikendalikan di seluruh Empayar Rom. Kekayaan Tadmur membolehkan pembinaan projek yang tersergam dan bersejarah, seperti Deretan Tiang Besar, Kuil Bel, dan makam menara yang tersendiri. Mengikut etnik, orang Tadmur menggabungkan unsur-unsur dari orang Amorit, orang Aram, dan orang Arab. Struktur sosial bandar ini bersifat kabilah, dan penduduknya bertutur dialek Tadmur (suatu dialek Aramia), sementara menggunakan bahasa Yunani bagi tujuan perdagangan dan diplomasi. budaya Yunani-Rom mempengaruhi budaya Tadmur, yang menghasilkan seni dan seni bina tersendiri yang menggabungkan tradisi timur dan barat. Penduduk bandar ini dahulu menyembah dewa-dewi Semitik tempatan, dewa-dewi Mesopotamia dan Arab.

Menjelang abad ketiga Masihi Tadmur telah menjadi pusat rantau yang makmur. Ia mencapai puncak kuasanya pada 260-an, apabila Raja Tadmur Odaenathus menewaskan Maharaja Parsi Shapur I. Raja tersebut diganti oleh Ratu pemangku raja Zenobia, yang memberontak menentang Rom dan mendirikan Empayar Tadmur. Pada tahun 273, maharaja Rom Aurelian memusnahkan bandar ini, yang kemudian dipulihkan oleh Diocletian pada suatu saiz yang terkurang. Rakyat Tadmur memeluk agama Kristian semasa abad keempat dan ke Islam pada abad berikutan penaklukan oleh Kerajaan Khulafa al-Rasyidin abad ke-7, selepas itu bahasa-bahasa Tadmur dan Yunani diganti oleh bahasa Arab.

Sebelum 273M, Tadmur menikmati autonomi dan bergabung dengan wilayah Syria Rom, dengan pertubuhan politiknya terpengaruh oleh model negara kota Yunani semasa dua abad Masihi yang pertama. Kota ini menjadi sebuah colonia Rom semasa abad ketiga, membawa kepada penggabungan institusi pemerintah Rom, sebelum menjadi negara raja pada tahun 260. Berikutan kemusnahannya pada tahun 273, Tadmur menjadi pusat kecil di bawah Byzantine dan empayar kemudian. Kemusnahannya oleh Timurid pada tahun 1400 mengurangkannya kepada sebuah kampung kecil. Di bawah pemerintahan Mandatori Perancis pada tahun 1932, penduduk dipindahkan ke kampung baru Tadmur, dan tapak purba ada untuk pengorekan. Semasa Perang Saudara Syria pada tahun 2015, Negara Islam Iraq dan Syam (Daesh) menghancurkan bahagian besar kota purba ini, yang ditawan semula oleh Tentera Syria pada 2 Mac 2017.

Lihat jugaSunting

NotaSunting

RujukanSunting

PetikanSunting

SumberSunting

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Templat:Palmyra Templat:Syria topics Templat:Homs Governorate Templat:World Heritage Sites in Syria