The Birth of a Nation

Rencana ini ialah mengenai filem tahun senyap 1915. Untuk filem terbaru dengan tajuk sama, sila lihat The Birth of a Nation (filem 2016).

The Birth of a Nation (asalnya dipanggil The Clansman) merupakan filem senyap epik Amerika Syarikat 1915 yang diarahkan dan diterbitkan oleh D. W. Griffith serta dibintangi oleh Lillian Gish. Ia merupakan adaptasi dari novel dan pementasan The Clansman, oleh Thomas Dixon Jr.. Filem ini ditulis oleh Griffith bersama-sama Frank E. Woods.

The Birth of a Nation
Birth of a Nation theatrical poster.jpg
Poster iklan filem
PengarahD. W. Griffith
PenerbitD. W. Griffith
Harry Aitken[1]
Lakon layar olehD. W. Griffith
Frank E. Woods
BerdasarkanThe Clansman
oleh T. F. Dixon Jr.
Dibintangi olehLillian Gish
Mae Marsh
Henry B. Walthall
Miriam Cooper
Ralph Lewis
George Siegmann
Walter Long
Muzik olehJoseph Carl Breil
SinematografiG. W. Bitzer
Disunting olehD. W. Griffith
Syarikat
penerbitan
David W. Griffith Corp.
PengedarEpoch Producing Co.
Mula ditayangkan
8 Februari 1915 (1915-02-08)
Tempoh tayangan
12 gelung
133–193 minutes[2]
NegaraAS
BahasaBisu
Perbelanjaan>$100,000[3]
Pecah panggungunknown; estimated $50–100 million[4]
The Birth of a Nation (1915)
Griffith di set pengambaran The Birth of a Nation (1915) bersama pelakon Henry Walthall dan yang lain-lain

Filem ini menjadi penuh kontroversi atas penampilan watak-watak berkulit hitam ia sebagai berperwatakan ganas (dilakonkan banyak pelakon berkulit putih dalam solekan khas) serta bernafsu buas terhadap wanita, serta menggambarkan Ku Klux Klan - sebuah kelompok pemerjuang ketuanan kulit putih - sebagai wira,[5][6] malah penayangan filem ini menjadi antara faktor penting dalam penaikkan nama serta pembentukan semula kelompom tersebut pada tahun 1915. Terdapat banyak tunjuk perasaan dalam golongan masyarakat kulit hitam terhadap penayangan filem dini di serata Amerika Syarikat.[7]

Barisan pelakonSunting

RujukanSunting

  1. ^ "D. W. Griffith: Hollywood Independent". Cobbles.com. 1917-06-26. Dicapai pada 2013-07-03.
  2. ^ "THE BIRTH OF A NATION (U)". Western Import Co. Ltd. British Board of Film Classification. Dicapai pada 20 Ogos 2013.
  3. ^ Hall, Sheldon; Neale, Stephen (2010). Epics, spectacles, and blockbusters: a Hollywood history. Contemporary Approaches to Film and Television. Wayne State University Press. m/s. 270 (note 2.78). ISBN 978-0-8143-3697-7. In common with most film historians, he estimates that The Birth of Nation cost "just a little more than $100,000" to produce...
  4. ^ Monaco, James (2009). How to Read a Film:Movies, Media, and Beyond. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-975579-0.
  5. ^ MJ Movie Reviews – Birth of a Nation, The (1915) by Dan DeVore Diarkibkan 7 Julai 2009 di Wayback Machine
  6. ^ Armstrong, Eric M. (Februari 26, 2010). "Revered and Reviled: D.W. Griffith's 'The Birth of a Nation'". The Moving Arts Film Journal. Diarkib daripada yang asal pada Mei 29, 2010. Dicapai pada April 13, 2010. Parameter |deadurl= yang tidak diketahui diendahkan (bantuan)
  7. ^ ""The Birth of a Nation" Sparks Protest". Mass Moments. Diarkib daripada yang asal pada Mei 12, 2013. Dicapai pada Julai 3, 2013. Parameter |deadurl= yang tidak diketahui diendahkan (bantuan)

Bibliografi

  • Addams, Jane, in Crisis: A Record of Darker Races, X (May 1915), 19, 41, and (June 1915), 88.
  • Bogle, Donald. Toms, Coons, Mulattoes, Mammies and Bucks: An Interpretive History of Blacks in American Films (1973).
  • Brodie, Fawn M. Thaddeus Stevens, Scourge of the South (New York, 1959), p. 86–93. Corrects the historical record as to Dixon's false representation of Stevens in this film with regard to his racial views and relations with his housekeeper.
  • Chalmers, David M. Hooded Americanism: The History of the Ku Klux Klan (New York: 1965), p. 30 *Cook, Raymond Allen. Fire from the Flint: The Amazing Careers of Thomas Dixon (Winston-Salem, N.C., 1968).
  • Franklin, John Hope. "Silent Cinema as Historical Mythmaker". In Myth America: A Historical Anthology, Volume II. 1997. Gerster, Patrick, and Cords, Nicholas. (editors.) Brandywine Press, St. James, NY. ISBN 978-1-881089-97-1
  • Franklin, John Hope, "Propaganda as History" pp. 10–23 in Race and History: Selected Essays 1938–1988 (Louisiana State University Press, 1989); first published in The Massachusetts Review, 1979. Describes the history of the novel The Clan and this film.
  • Franklin, John Hope, Reconstruction After the Civil War (Chicago, 1961), p. 5–7.
  • Hickman, Roger. Reel Music: Exploring 100 Years of Film Music (New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 2006).
  • Hodapp, Christopher L., and Alice Von Kannon, Conspiracy Theories & Secret Societies For Dummies (Hoboken: Wiley, 2008) p. 235–6.
  • Korngold, Ralph, Thaddeus Stevens. A Being Darkly Wise and Rudely Great (New York: 1955) pp. 72–76. corrects Dixon's false characterization of Stevens' racial views and of his dealings with his housekeeper.
  • Leab, Daniel J., From Sambo to Superspade (Boston, 1975), p. 23–39.
  • New York Times, roundup of reviews of this film, March 7, 1915.
  • The New Republica, II (March 20, 1915), 185
  • Poole, W. Scott, Monsters in America: Our Historical Obsession with the Hideous and the Haunting (Waco, Texas: Baylor, 2011), 30. ISBN 978-1-60258-314-6
  • Simkins, Francis B., "New Viewpoints of Southern Reconstruction", Journal of Southern History, V (February, 1939), pp. 49–61.
  • Stokes, Melvyn (2007), D. W. Griffith's The Birth of a Nation: A History of "The Most Controversial Motion Picture of All Time", New York: Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-804436-4. The latest study of the film's making and subsequent career.
  • Williamson, Joel, After Slavery: The Negro in South Carolina During Reconstruction (Chapel Hill, 1965). This book corrects Dixon's false reporting of Reconstruction, as shown in his novel, his play and this film.

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