Harmandir Sahib[3] (Bahasa Panjabi: ਦਰਬਾਰ ਸਾਹਿਬ), atau Darbar Emas[1] (Bahasa Panjabi: ਹਰਿਮੰਦਰ ਸਾਹਿਬ) merupakan tempat beribadat terpenting dan paling utama dalam agama Sikh, selain merupakan salah satu gurdwara tertua didirikan. Ia terletak di bandar Amritsar, Punjab, India; ia ditubuhkan oleh Guru Ram Das Ji, guru keempat umat Sikh.

Kuil Emas
Kuil Emas[1][2]
Maklumat umum
Gaya seni bina
Seni bina Sikh
Pembinaan bermulaDisember 1585
Disiapkan pada
Ogos 1604
Pelanggan/klienPenganut Sikh
Reka bentuk dan seni bina
ArkitekGuru Arjan Dev Ji
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Tempat ini dianggap sangat suci kerana menempatkan kitab Sri Guru Granth Sahib Ji di dalamnya. Seni bina ia direka bertujuan sebagai tempat menerima semua penziarah dan pelawat berbilang agama yang sudi beribadat di dalamnya secara sama rata.[1][4] The Sri Guru Granth Sahib is the holiest literature in the Sikh religion,[4] the tenth Guru of Sikhs, Sri Guru Gobind Singh on 7 October 1708 made it the eternal Sikh Guru and the leader of Sikhism.[4] Anywhere in the world where the Guru Granth Sahib is present is equally holy and precious to Sikhs. Harmandir Sahib was built with four doors to show that every religion or faith is allowed to go in to meditate or just listen to the prayers for peace. [5]

History sunting

The fourth Guru of Sikhism, Guru Ram Das, excavated a tank in 1577 which subsequently became known as Amritsar (meaning: Pool of the Nectar of Immortality),[3] giving its name to the city that grew around it. In due course, a splendid Sikh edifice, the Harmandir Sahib (Temple of God),[3] was constructed in the middle of this tank which became the supreme centre of Sikhism. Its sanctum came to house the Adi Granth comprising compositions, Sikh values, philosophies and teachings of the Sikh Gurus and other saints of Guru Nanak's time, e.g. Ravidas a Hindu Guru, Baba Farid a Sufi Sant (Saint) and Kabir, all of whom the Sikhs refer to as the Bhagats.

The compilation of the Adi Granth was started by the fifth Guru of the Sikhs, Guru Arjun Dev.

The Harmandir Sahib Complex and areas in its vicinity sunting

Map of the Harmandir Sahib Complex, Click to enlarge

The temple is surrounded by a large Sarovar (manmade lake), known as the AmritSar (Lake of Holy Water or Immortal Nectar). There are entrances to the temple on all four sides, signifying the importance of acceptance and openness; ostensibly, this concept is reminiscent of the tent of Abraham in the Old Testament—his tent was open on all four sides in order to be able to welcome travelers from all directions. Inside the temple complex there are many shrines to past Sikh Gurus, Saints and martyrs (see map). There are three holy trees (Bers) each associated with a historical event or Sikh saint. Inside the temple there are many memorial plaques that commemorate past Sikh historical events, saints, martyrs and includes commemorative inscriptions of all the Sikh soldiers who died fighting in the two World Wars. For a new visitor the first recommended place to visit is the information Office highlighted (4) on the map and followed by visiting the Sikh Central museum near the main entrance called the Ghanta Ghar Deori (clock tower gate). Anyone who wants to enter the Harmandir Sahib may do so, irrespective of religion, colour, creed or sex. The only restrictions are that the person must not drink alcohol, eat meat or smoke cigarettes or use other non prescription drugs while in the shrine. Visitors are, as well, expected to dress appropriately and everyone must cover their heads as a sign of respect, remove their shoes and socks and enter the temple barefooted. Visitors must wash their feet in the small pool of water as they enter the Harmandir Sahib premises. Head scarves are provided.

In 1988, after Operation Black Thunder, a narrow peripheral strip of land (including buildings) was acquired by the government essentially to create a security belt. A large number of people were displaced in the process. However, the project met with a strong resistance from the moderate as well as militant Sikh organisations and the project had to be abandoned, after a senior Government engineer, connected with the project, was killed. The project was revived only in 1993 by the Deputy Commissioner Karan Bir Singh Sidhu, who was also appointed as the Project Director of what was popularly described as the Galliara Project. He changed the concept of the periphery from that of a security belt to that of a second parikarma and created a serene landscape that was fully consistent with the ethereal beauty of the Harmandir Sahib. This was done in quiet consultation with the SGPC. The pilgrims today can travel by foot in the Galliara, where no vehicles are permitted.

The Langar Deori or East Entrance gate near Ath-sath Tirath (68 Sacred Places), (Point 8) on the map and the Langar Hall (Point 18)

Celebrations at Harmandir Sahib sunting

Towers of the Ramgarhia Bunga (Point 17 on map)

One of the most important festivals is Vaisakhi, which is celebrated in the second week of April (13th usually). Sikhs celebrate the founding of the Khalsa on this day and it is celebrated with fervour in the Harmandir Sahib. Other important Sikh religious days such as the martyrdom day of Guru Teg Bahadur, birthday of Guru Nanak etc, are also celebrated with religious piety. Similarly Diwali is one of the festivals which sees the Harmandir Sahib beautifully illuminated with Divas/Diyas (lamps),lights and fireworks are discharged. During these special wedding occasions 1-2 million pilgrims visit the Holy shrine named Harmandir Sahib.

Most Sikh people visit Amritsar and the Harmandir Sahib at least once during their lifetime, particularly during special occasions such as birthdays, marriage, birth of children, etc.

Operation Blue Star sunting

Between June 3 and June 6, 1984, the Indian Army under the instruction of Indira Gandhi brought troops into the Harmandir Sahib to arrest Jarnail Singh Bhindranwale. He and some followers had taken refuge in the Harmandir Sahib, and resisted the police who sought to arrest him for suspected acts of terrorism.

The Harmandir Sahib compound and some of the surrounding houses were fortified. The Statesman reported on July 4 that light machine-guns and sophisticated self-loading rifles were known to have been brought into the compound.

Indira Gandhi ordered the army to launch Operation Blue Star, and fierce fighting ensued between Bhindranwale's supporters and the soldiers. Many of Bhindranwale's supporters were killed along with many soldiers and many visitors to the site who had been kept from leaving the complex once the attack got under way. An official account tallies the deaths of 83 soldiers and 492 civilians.[6] The Harmandir Sahib complex also suffered much damage due to the fighting, especially the holy Sri Akal Takhat Sahib.

Indira Gandhi was reported to have said to General Vaidya during Operation Bluestar "I want Bhindranwale dead." Many Sikhs regarded the attack as a desecration of their holiest shrine. Indira Gandhi was assassinated by two of her bodyguards, both Sikhs, the following October.

Akal Takht: as it stands today

In 1986 the repairs performed on the holy Sri Akal Takhat Sahib, which the Rajiv Gandhi Government had undertaken without consultation, were removed. A new Sri Akal Takhat Sahib was completed in 1999 by pilgrims who provided free services and labor.

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Lihat juga sunting

Rujukan sunting

  1. ^ a b c Harban Singh (1998). Encyclopedia of Sikhism. Punjabi University. ISBN 817380530X. Unknown parameter |coauthors= ignored (|author= suggested) (bantuan); External link in |publisher= (bantuan)
  2. ^ The Sikhism Home Page: Introduction to Sikhism
  3. ^ a b c Golden Temple, Punjabi University, Parm Barkshish Singh, Devinder Kumar Verma, ISBN 81-7380-569-5
  4. ^ a b c The Sikhism Home Page: Sri Guru Granth Sahib
  5. ^ <http://www.slamnet.org.uk/re/sikhism.htm Diarkibkan 2009-04-02 di Wayback Machine>
  6. ^ Varinder Walia, "Army reveals startling facts on Bluestar: Says Longowal surrendered", The Tribune, Chandigarh (March 20, 2007)

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