Ultranasionalisme ialah suatu bentuk "nasionalisme melampau yang mendokong kepentingan sesebuah negara atau rakyat melebih segala benda lain", ataupun juga "ketaatan kepada negara sendiri yang melampau".[1][2]

Gabungan fahaman ini dengan pendirian terhadap tindakan membaharukan atau membangunkan semula sesebuah bangsa (national rebirth) ialah batu asas kepada fasisme.[3] Beberapa organisasi ultranasionalis telah ditetapkan sebagai gerakan pengganas oleh negara-negara bangsa tertentu. [4]

Menurut Janusz Bugajski, "dalam bentuknya yang paling ekstrem atau maju, ultra-nasionalisme menyerupai fasisme, ditandai dengan penghinaan xenofobia dari negara lain, sokongan untuk pengaturan politik otoriter yang bersandar pada totalitarianisme, dan penekanan mitos pada 'kesatuan organik' antara pemimpin yang berkarisma, sebuah parti gerakan amorf yang bersifat organisasi, dan bangsa". [5]

Roger Griffin menegaskan bahawa ultranasionalisme pada dasarnya bersifat xenofobia dan diketahui mengesahkan dirinya sendiri "melalui naratif yang sangat mitos mengenai masa kebudayaan atau politik masa lalu mengenai kehebatan sejarah atau skor lama untuk mengatasi musuh yang dituduh". Ini juga dapat menggunakan "bentuk antropologi fizikal, genetik, dan eugenik vulgar untuk merasionalisasikan idea-idea tentang kelebihan dan takdir nasional, kemerosotan dan kemanusiaan". [6]

Parti Politik UltranasionalismeSunting

Kini diwakili dalam badan perundangan nasionalSunting

Parti politik berikut telah disifatkan sebagai ultranasionalis.

Dahulu diwakili di badan perundangan negaraSunting

Pertubuhan Politik UltranasionalisSunting

Lihat JugaSunting

RujukanSunting

  1. ^ Kata asal: "...extreme nationalism that promotes the interest of one state or people above all others..., "Ultranationalism. Oxford English Dictionary. Dicapai 29 Jun 2017.
  2. ^ Kata asal: "...extreme devotion to one's own nation"...". Ultranationalism. Collins English Dictionary. Dicapai 29 Jun 2017.
  3. ^ Roger Griffin, "Nationalism" in Cyprian Blamires, ed., World Fascism: A Historical Encyclopedia, vol. 2 (Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO, 2006), pp. 451–53.
  4. ^ https://www.usnews.com/news/world/articles/2020-04-06/us-designates-russia-based-ultranationalist-group-as-terrorist-organisation-us-official
  5. ^ https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=xeFNV40_EUAC&pg=PA65&dq=ultranationalism+authoritarian&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwi20tfP0rnaAhWLOsAKHQhhB7wQ6AEIWDAI#v=onepage&q&f=false
  6. ^ https://books.google.com/books?id=dDYRAQAAMAAJ&q=%22%22through+deeply+mythicized+narratives+of+past+cultural+or+political+periods%22
  7. ^ Katsikas, Stefanos (2011). "Negotiating Diplomacy in the New Europe: Foreign Policy in Post-Communist Bulgaria". I.B. Tauris: 64. Petikan journal memerlukan |journal= (bantuan)
  8. ^ Cyprus and the roadmap for peace - A critical interrogation of the conflict. P. 87. Edited by Michalis S. Michael and Yucel Vural. Chapter authors - Yucel Vural, Sertac Sonan, and Michalis S. Michael. Published by Edward Elgar Publishing in Cheltenham, UK. Published in 2018.
  9. ^ "The 1619 Project and the far-right fear of history". Washington Post. 20 August 2019. A leader of Germany's ultranationalist AfD party in 2017 bemoaned how the country's focus on atoning ...
  10. ^ "Frankenstein pact puts AfD in coalition". The Times. 23 July 2019. A married couple have run into trouble for forging the first local pact between Angela Merkel’s party and the ultranationalist Alternative for Germany (AfD) in defiance of the chancellor.
  11. ^ "Greek elections: landslide victory for centre-right New Democracy party". The Guardian. 7 July 2019. Smaller parties, such as the ultra-nationalist Greek Solution and leftist MeRA25, headed by Yanis Varoufakis, the former finance minister, were targeting younger Greeks.
  12. ^ Mark Magnier (8 March 2012). "In India, battle continues over Hindu temple's riches - latimes". Los Angeles Times. Articles.latimes.com. Dicapai pada 2015-12-02.
  13. ^ "Can a left-wing alliance stop Salvini from forming a far-right government in Italy?". France 24. 2019-08-15. Dicapai pada 2020-03-15.
  14. ^ "Beautiful Harmony: Political Project Behind Japan's New Era Name – Analysis". eurasia review. 16 July 2019. The shifting dynamics around the new era name (gengō 元号) offers an opportunity to understand how the domestic politics of the LDP’s project of ultranationalism is shaping a new Japan and a new form of nationalism.
  15. ^ "Polish Interior Minister Issues Last-Minute Ban on Neo-Fascist Show of Force Outside Israeli Embassy in Warsaw". The Algemeiner. 31 January 2018.
  16. ^ "Ultranationalists Move to Slap Fines on Use of Foreign Words". 21 February 2013.
  17. ^ Van Herpen, Marcel H. (2015). Putin's Propaganda Machine: Soft Power and Russian Foreign Policy. Rowman & Littlefield. m/s. 34.
  18. ^ "Not Even a Prosperous Slovakia Is Immune to Doubts About the E.U." New York Times. 17 December 2016.
  19. ^ Acha, Beatriz (6 January 2019). "No, no es un partido (neo)fascista". Agenda Pública.
  20. ^ Antón-Mellón, Joan (29 April 2019). "Vox. Del nacional-catolicismo al ultranacionalismo neoliberal". Agenda Pública.
  21. ^ "Danger on the Swiss Stock Exchange". ING Group. 5 December 2018. The ultra-nationalist Swiss People's Party (SVP or UDC) - the most powerful political movement in the country - is campaigning against European agreements.
  22. ^ Arman, Murat Necip (2007). "The Sources Of Banality In Transforming Turkish Nationalism". CEU Political Science Journal (2): 133–151.
  23. ^ Eissenstat, Howard. (November 2002). "Anatolianism: The History of a Failed Metaphor of Turkish Nationalism". Middle East Studies Association Conference. Washington, D.C..
  24. ^ Göçek, Fatma Müge (2015). Denial of Violence: Ottoman Past, Turkish Present and Collective Violence Against the Armenians, 1789-2009 (dalam bahasa Inggeris). Oxford University Press. m/s. 402. ISBN 978-0-19-933420-9.
  25. ^ "Svoboda: The rise of Ukraine's ultra-nationalists". BBC. 25 December 2012. Dicapai pada 1 March 2015.
  26. ^ "Khmer People's Revolutionary Party (KPRP)". globalsecurity.org. Dicapai pada 28 May 2020.
  27. ^ Tsatsanis, Emmanouil (2011), "Hellenism under siege: the national-populist logic of antiglobalization rhetoric in Greece", Journal of Political Ideologies, 16 (1): 11–31, doi:10.1080/13569317.2011.540939, ...and far right-wing newspapers such as Alpha Ena, Eleytheros Kosmos, Eleytheri Ora and Stohos (the mouthpiece of ultra-nationalist group Chrysi Avgi). Parameter |s2cid= yang tidak diketahui diendahkan (bantuan)
  28. ^ Ivarsflaten, Elisabeth (2006), Reputational Shields: Why Most Anti-Immigrant Parties Failed in Western Europe, 1980–2005 (PDF), Nuffield College, University of Oxford, m/s. 15
  29. ^ On the Road with Golden Dawn, Greece’s Ultra-Nationalist Party. Time. Published 31 October 2012. Retrieved 11 March 2017.
  30. ^ Ford, Peter (2018). "Serbian Radical Party surge may complicate reform". Christian Science Monitor. Dicapai pada 17 December 2018.
  31. ^ Nippon Kaigi: The ultra-nationalistic group trying to restore the might of the Japanese Empire. ABC News Online. Author - Matthew Carney. Published 2 December 2015. Retrieved 10 October 2018.
  32. ^ "Abe's cabinet reshuffle". East Asia Forum. 14 September 2019. Abe also rewarded right-wing politicians who are close to him — so-called ‘ideological friends’ who are being increasingly pushed to the forefront of his administration — such as LDP Executive Acting Secretary-General Koichi Hagiuda who was appointed Education Minister. As a member of the ultranationalist Nippon Kaigi (Japan Conference), which seeks to promote patriotic education, he can be considered ‘reliable’ as the government’s policy leader on national education.
  33. ^ "Japanese minister becomes first in two years to visit Tokyo's controversial Yasukuni Shrine". South China Morning Post. 17 October 2019. Dicapai pada 5 June 2020. Eto is serving in his first cabinet position and is a member of the ultranationalist Nippon Kaigi organisation, whose aims are to revise the “national consciousness” surrounding the prosecution of Japan’s war criminals and to change the nation’s pacifist constitution implemented after the war. The group also promotes “patriotic education”.
  34. ^ Michal Kolmas, penyunting (2019). National Identity and Japanese Revisionism. Routledge. ISBN 9781351334396. ... and foreign policy are rightwing revisionists organized in groups such as the ultranationalist Nippon Kaigi ...
  35. ^ Ugo Dessì, penyunting (2013). Japanese Religions and Globalization. Routledge. m/s. 146. ISBN 9780415811705.
  36. ^ "Japan combats rise in hate speech". Al Jazeera. 30 November 2015. Dicapai pada 5 June 2020. ... and many don’t speak Korean or have ties to Korea. Even so, ultranationalist groups like Zaitokukai have singled them out and used Japan’s very liberal protection of speech to harass, intimidate and silence Zainichi with noisy street protests and attacks online, often anonymously.
  37. ^ "Head of anti-foreigner group Zaitokukai to step down". Japan Times. 30 November 2015. Dicapai pada 5 June 2020. The longtime chairman of the ultranationalist group Zaitokukai has announced he will step down and even give up his membership in the group, saying the move will eventually bolster the organization’s influence.
  38. ^ https://stockholmcf.org/germany-seeks-to-ban-ultranationalist-turkish-grey-wolves-symbols/
  39. ^ https://www.kurdistan24.net/en/news/24c5f251-70e1-482a-a81a-6644a2e9bc75
  40. ^ https://www.duvarenglish.com/human-rights/2020/05/09/far-right-group-attempts-to-attack-grup-yorum-member-gokceks-grave-to-burn-his-body/
  41. ^ Alessio, Dominic; Meredith, Kristen (2014). "Blackshirts for the Twenty–First Century? Fascism and the English Defence League". Social Identities. 20 (1): 104–118. doi:10.1080/13504630.2013.843058.