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Hoki di Sukan Olimpik Musim Panas

Hoki diperkenalkan di Sukan Olimpik Musim Panas sebagai pertandingan lelaki pada Sukan 1908 di London, dengan enam pasukan termasuk empat dari United Kingdom Great Britain dan Ireland.

Hoki di Sukan Olimpik Musim Panas
Field hockey pictogram.svg
Badan Pentadbiran
Acara 2 (lelaki: 1; wanita: 1)
Sukan
1896 1900 1904 1908 1912 1920
1924 1928 1932 1936 1948 1952
1956 1960 1964 1968 1972 1976
1980 1984 1988 1992 1996 2000
2004 2008 2012 2016 2020
Pemenang pingat

Hoki telah dikeluarkan daripada Sukan Olimpik di Sukan 1924 Paris kerana kekurangan struktur sukan antarabangsa. Persekutuan Hoki Antarabangsa (FIH, Fédération Internationale de Hockey) ditubuhkan di Paris tahun itu sebagai tindak balas kepada peninggalan bidang hoki. Untuk hoki lelaki menjadi satu ciri kekal di Sukan Olimpik akan datang, Sukan 1928 di Amsterdam.

Bagi tempoh masa yang panjang, India menguasai Sukan Olimpik, memenangi pingat emas lelaki dalam tujuh daripada lapan Sukan Olimpik 1928-1964.

Sejak tahun 1968, beberapa pasukan dari seluruh dunia telah melihat kejayaan pingat emas pada Sukan Olimpik. Sejak tahun 1968, beberapa negara di Hemisfera Selatan telah memenangi pelbagai pingat dalam hoki lelaki dan wanita, termasuk Australia, New Zealand, Argentina dan Zimbabwe. Sekumpulan utama pasukan dari Hemisfera Utara telah datang dari Belanda dan dari Jerman.

Pada masa ini, Sepanyol telah muncul dalam kejohanan Olimpik lelaki yang paling banyak tanpa berjaya memenangi pingat emas lelaki, setelah memenangi perak tiga kali dalam 1980, 1996, 2008 dan gangsa sekali dalam 1960. Australia sebelum ini bertanding dalam Sukan Olimpik 11 tanpa memenangi emas sebelum berbuka coretan mereka di 2004.


LelakiSunting

RingkasanSunting

Tahun Tuan Rumah Perlawanan Akhir Penentuan Tempat Ketiga
Juara Jaringan Naib Juara Tempat Ketiga Jaringan Tempat Keempat
1908
Butiran
 
London
 
Great Britain

(England)
8–1  
Great Britain
(Ireland)
 
Great Britain
(Scotland)
 
Great Britain
(Wales)
[1]
1912  
Stockholm
Tiada Kejohanan Hoki Tiada Kejohanan Hoki
1920
Butiran
 
Antwerp
 
Great Britain
[2]  
Denmark
 
Belgium
[2]  
Perancis
1924  
Paris
Tiada Kejohanan Hoki Tiada Kejohanan Hoki
1928
Butiran
 
Amsterdam
 
India
3–0  
Belanda
 
Jerman
3–0  
Belgium
1932
Butiran
 
Los Angeles
 
India
[3]  
Jepun
 
Amerika Syarikat
[3]
1936
Butiran
 
Berlin
 
India
8–1  
Jerman
 
Belanda
4–3  
Perancis
1948
Butiran
 
London
 
India
4–0  
Great Britain
 
Belanda
1–1
(4–1)
(Penalti)
 
Pakistan
1952
Butiran
 
Helsinki
 
India
6–1  
Belanda
 
Great Britain
2–1  
Pakistan
1956
Butiran
 
Melbourne
 
India
1–0  
Pakistan
 
Pasukan Bersatu Jerman[4]
3–1  
Great Britain
1960
Butiran
 
Rom
 
Pakistan
1–0  
India
 
Sepanyol
2–1  
Great Britain
1964
Butiran
 
Tokyo
 
India
1–0  
Pakistan
 
Australia
3–2
(Masa tambahan)
 
Sepanyol
1968
Butiran
 
Bandar Mexico
 
Pakistan
2–1  
Australia
 
India
2–1  
Jerman Barat
1972
Butiran
 
Munich
 
Jerman Barat
1–0  
Pakistan
 
India
2–1  
Belanda
1976
Butiran
 
Montreal
 
New Zealand
1–0  
Australia
 
Pakistan
3–2  
Belanda
1980
Butiran
 
Moscow
 
India
4–3  
Sepanyol
 
Kesatuan Soviet
2–1  
Poland
1984
Butiran
 
Los Angeles
 
Pakistan
2–1
(Masa tambahan)
 
Jerman Barat
 
Great Britain
3–2  
Australia
1988
Butiran
 
Seoul
 
Great Britain
3–1  
Jerman Barat
 
Belanda
2–1  
Australia
1992
Butiran
 
Barcelona
 
Jerman
2–1  
Australia
 
Pakistan
4–3  
Belanda
1996
Butiran
 
Atlanta
 
Belanda
3–1  
Sepanyol
 
Australia
3–2  
Jerman
2000
Butiran
 
Sydney
 
Belanda
3–3
(5–4)
(Penalti)
 
Korea Selatan
 
Australia
6–3  
Pakistan
2004
Butiran
 
Athens
 
Australia
2–1
(Masa tambahan)
 
Belanda
 
Jerman
4–3
(Masa tambahan)
 
Sepanyol
2008
Butiran
 
Beijing
 
Jerman
1–0  
Sepanyol
 
Australia
6–2  
Belanda
2012
Butiran
 
London
 
Jerman
2–1  
Belanda
 
Australia
3–1  
Great Britain
2016
Butiran
 
Rio de Janeiro
 
Argentina
4 – 2  
Belgium
 
Jerman
1 – 1
(4 – 3)
(Penalti)
 
Belanda

Kemunculan pasukanSunting

Pasukan 1908 1920 1928 1932 1936 1948 1952 1956 1960 1964 1968 1972 1976 1980 1984 1988 1992 1996 2000 2004 2008 2012 2016 Jumlah
  Afghanistan - - - - 6th 8th - 11th - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 3
  Argentina - - - - - 5th - - - - 14th 14th 11th - - 8th 11th 9th 8th 11th - 10th 1st 11
  Australia - - - - - - - 5th 6th 3rd 2nd 5th 2nd - 4th 4th 2nd 3rd 3rd 1st 3rd 3rd 6th 15
  Austria - - 9th - - 8th 7th - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 3
  Belgium - 3rd 4th - 9th 5th 9th 7th 11th 11th 9th 10th 9th - - - - - - - 9th 5th 2nd 14
  Brazil - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 12th 1
  Kanada - - - - - - - - - 13th - - 10th - 12th 11th - - 10th - 10th - 11th 7
  China - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 11th - - 1
  CIS - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 10th - - - - - - 1
  Cuba - - - - - - - - - - - - - 5th - - - - - - - - - 1
  Denmark - 2nd 5th - 10th 11th - - 16th - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 5
  Jerman Timur - - - - - - - - - - 11th - - - - - - - - - - - - 1
  Mesir - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 12th - - 12th - - - 2
  England 1st - 1
  Finland - - - - - - 9th - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1
  Perancis 6th 4th 5th - 4th 8th 11th - 10th - 10th 12th - - - - - - - - - - - 9
  Great Britain - 1st - - - 2nd 3rd 4th 4th 9th 12th 6th - - 3rd 1st 6th 7th 6th 9th 5th 4th 9th 17
  Jerman 5th - 3rd - 2nd - 5th - 1st 4th 5th 3rd 1st 1st 3rd 11
  Hong Kong - - - - - - - - - 15th - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1
  Hungary - - - - 8th - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1
  India - - 1st 1st 1st 1st 1st 1st 2nd 1st 3rd 3rd 7th 1st 5th 6th 7th 8th 7th 7th - 12th 8th 20
  Ireland 2nd - 10th 2
  Itali - - - - - - 11th - 13th - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 2
  Jepun - - - 2nd 7th - - - 14th 7th 12th - - - - - - - - - - - - 5
  Kenya - - - - - - - 10th 7th 6th 8th 13th - - 9th 12th - - - - - - - 7
  Korea Selatan - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 10th - 5th 2nd 8th 6th 8th - 6
  Malaysia - - - - - - - 9th - 9th 15th 8th 8th - 10th - 9th 11th 11th - - - - 9
  Mexico - - - - - - - - - - 16th 16th - - - - - - - - - - - 2
  Belanda - - 2nd - 3rd 3rd 2nd - 9th 7th 5th 4th 4th - 6th 3rd 4th 1st 1st 2nd 4th 2nd 4th 18
  New Zealand - - - - - - - 6th 5th 13th 7th 9th 1st - 7th - 8th - - 6th 7th 9th 7th 12
  Pakistan - - - - - 4th 4th 2nd 1st 2nd 1st 2nd 3rd - 1st 5th 3rd 6th 4th 5th 8th 7th - 16
  Poland - - - - - - 6th - 12th - - 11th - 4th - - - - 12th - - - - 5
  Scotland 3rd - 1
  Singapura - - - - - - - 8th - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1
  Afrika Selatan - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 10th - 10th 12th 11th - 4
  Kesatuan Soviet# - - - - - - - - - - - - - 3rd - 7th - 2
  Sepanyol - - 7th - - 11th - - 3rd 4th 6th 7th 6th 2nd 8th 9th 5th 2nd 9th 4th 2nd 6th 5th 17
  Switzerland - - 7th - 5th 5th 7th - 15th - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 5
  Tanzania - - - - - - - - - - - - - 6th - - - - - - - - - 1
  Uganda - - - - - - - - - - - 15th - - - - - - - - - - - 1
  Jerman Bersatu - 3rd 7th 5th - 3
  Amerika Syarikat - - - 3rd 11th 11th - 12th - - - - - - 11th - - 12th - - - - - 6
  Wales 3rd - 1
  Jerman Barat - 4th 1st 5th - 2nd 2nd - 5
  Zimbabwe - - - - - - - - - 11th - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1
Jumlah 6 4 9 3 11 13 12 12 16 15 16 16 11 6 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 258
# = negeri yang mempunyai sejak berpecah kepada dua atau lebih negara-negara bebas

India adalah satu-satunya pasukan telah bertanding di hampir setiap Perlawanan Olimpik, kecuali hanya tiga edisi; 44 pasukan telah bertanding dalam sekurang-kurangnya satu Perlawanan Olimpik.

WanitaSunting

RingkasanSunting

Tahun Tuan Rumah Perlawanan Akhir Penentuan Tempat Ketiga
Juara Jaringan Naib Juara Tempat Ketiga Jaringan Tempat Keempat
1980
Butiran
 
Moscow
 
Zimbabwe
[5]  
Czechoslovakia
 
Kesatuan Soviet
[5]  
India
1984
Butiran
 
Los Angeles
 
Belanda
[6]  
Jerman Barat
 
Amerika Syarikat
(10–5)
(Penalti) [7]
 
Australia
1988
Butiran
 
Seoul
 
Australia
2–0  
Korea Selatan
 
Belanda
3–1  
Great Britain
1992
Butiran
 
Barcelona
 
Sepanyol
2–1
(Masa tambahan)
 
Jerman
 
Great Britain
4–3  
Korea Selatan
1996
Butiran
 
Atlanta
 
Australia
3–1  
Korea Selatan
 
Belanda
0–0
(4–3)
(Penalti)
 
Great Britain
2000
Butiran
 
Sydney
 
Australia
3–1  
Argentina
 
Belanda
2–0  
Sepanyol
2004
Butiran
 
Athens
 
Jerman
2–1  
Belanda
 
Argentina
1–0  
China
2008
Butiran
 
Beijing
 
Belanda
2–0  
China
 
Argentina
3–1  
Jerman
2012
Butiran
 
London
 
Belanda
2–0  
Argentina
 
Great Britain
3–1  
New Zealand

Kemunculan pasukanSunting

Pasukan 1980 1984 1988 1992 1996 2000 2004 2008 2012 Jumlah
  Argentina - - 7th - 7th 2nd 3rd 3rd 2nd 6
  Australia - 4th 1st 5th 1st 1st 5th 5th 5th 8
  Austria 5th - - - - - - - - 1
  Belgium - - - - - - - - 11th 1
  Kanada - 5th 6th 7th - - - - - 3
  Czechoslovakia# 2nd - - - - 1
  China - - - - - 5th 4th 2nd 6th 4
  Jerman - 2nd 6th 7th 1st 4th 7th 6
  Great Britain - - 4th 3rd 4th 8th - 6th 3rd 6
  India 4th - - - - - - - - 1
  Jepun - - - - - - 8th 10th 9th 3
  Korea Selatan - - 2nd 4th 2nd 9th 7th 9th 8th 7
  Belanda - 1st 3rd 6th 3rd 3rd 2nd 1st 1st 8
  New Zealand - 6th - 8th - 6th 6th 12th 4th 6
  Poland 6th - - - - - - - - 1
  Afrika Selatan - - - - - 10th 9th 11th 10th 4
  Kesatuan Soviet# 3rd - - - 1
  Sepanyol - - - 1st 8th 4th 10th 7th - 5
  Amerika Syarikat - 3rd 8th - 5th - - 8th 12th 5
  Jerman Barat - 2nd 5th - 2
  Zimbabwe 1st - - - - - - - - 1
Jumlah 6 6 8 8 8 10 10 12 12 80
# = negeri yang mempunyai sejak berpecah kepada dua atau lebih negara-negara bebas

Australia dan Belanda adalah satu-satunya pasukan telah bertanding di hampir setiap Perlawanan Olimpik, kecuali hanya satu edisi; 21 pasukan telah bertanding dalam sekurang-kurangnya satu permainan Olimpik.

Pungutan PingatSunting

 
Pasukan Hoki India di Olimpik Berlin 1936, menewaskan Jerman 8-1 pada perlawanan akhir
Ked. Negara Emas Perak Gangsa Jumlah
1   India (IND)* 8 1 2 11
2   Belanda (NED) 5 5 6 16
3   Australia (AUS) 4 3 5 12
4   Jerman (GER) 4 2 2 8
5   Pakistan (PAK) 3 3 2 8
6   Great Britain (GBR) 3 2 6 11
7   Sepanyol (ESP) 1 3 1 5
8   Jerman Barat (FRG) 1 3 0 4
9   New Zealand (NZL) 1 0 0 1
  Zimbabwe (ZIM) 1 0 0 1
11   Korea Selatan (KOR) 0 3 0 3
12   Argentina (ARG) 0 2 2 4
13   China (CHN) 0 1 0 1
  Czechoslovakia (TCH) 0 1 0 1
  Denmark (DEN) 0 1 0 1
  Jepun (JPN) 0 1 0 1
17   Kesatuan Soviet (URS) 0 0 2 2
  Amerika Syarikat (USA) 0 0 2 2
19   Belgium (BEL) 0 0 1 1
  Pasukan Bersatu Jerman (EUA) 0 0 1 1
Jumlah 31 31 32 94

* Termasuk 3 pingat emas sebagai British India

Lihat jugaSunting

Nota kakiSunting

  1. ^ Tidak ada perlawanan pingat gangsa untuk 1908 Olimpik di London.
  2. ^ a b The 1920 tournament was played in a round-robin format, so there were no gold medal or bronze medal matches. Ralat petik: Invalid <ref> tag; name "round" defined multiple times with different content
  3. ^ a b Only three teams participated in the 1932 tournament, so they played a round-robin format.
  4. ^ The Unified Team of Germany was the combined team from West Germany and East Germany that competed together at the Olympic Games from 1956 to 1964. Then each country sent independent teams from 1968 to 1988.
  5. ^ a b Round-robin format play in 1980 for women's tournament Ralat petik: Invalid <ref> tag; name "moscow" defined multiple times with different content
  6. ^ Round Robin format use in 1984 women's tournament
  7. ^ The final standings show both the United States and Australia were tied in points and had same margin in goal difference (both having scored 9 goals and conceded 7 goals), therefore a penalty stroke competition was played to decide the bronze medal winner, with the United States winning.