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Ahl al-Kisā' (Bahasa Arab: أهل الكساء Orang-orang Berjubah) merujuk kepada Rasul dan Nabi terakhir, Muhammad, anak perempuannya Fatimah az-Zahra, sepupu dan menantunya Ali bin Abi Talib, serta kedua-dua cucu Nabi Muhammad iaitu Hasan and Husayn. Mereka semua juga disebut sebagai Āl al-‘Abā (Bahasa Arab: آل العبا) atau Panj-tan-e Āl-e Abā (Bahasa Parsi: پنج تن آل عبا) atau ringkasnya Panj tan (Bahasa Parsi: پنج تن, yang bererti yang lima). Asal usul kepercayaan ini ditemui dalam Hadis Tentang Peristiwa Berjubah (Hadith of the Event of the Cloak) dan Hadis Mubahalah (Mubāhalah), dua hadis yang telah disahkan untuk diterima pakai oleh kedua-dua Mazhab Islam Sunni dan Syiah di mana yang kedua-duanya telah diakui benar hanya mempunyai perbezaan dari aspek tafsiran fiqh sahaja, tetapi masih tetap sama dari segala aspek tafsiran aqidah dan keimanannya kepada Allah dan Rasulullah.
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Perkara tersebut adalah merupakan perkara pokok atau perkara asas dalam konsep Islam Syiah Imamah (doktrin Syiah), yang menyatakan bahawa keturunan nasab bapa Nabi Muhammad memiliki kepimpinan rohani khusus di kalangan komuniti Muslim. Ahl al-Kisa, bersama dengan keturunan mereka, para Imam, telah membentuk takrifan Syiah tentang Ahlul Bait (Ahli-ahli Rumah), istilah yang digunakan untuk merujuk kepada ahli keluarga Muhammad.
Ketiga-tiga cabang Islam Syiah berbeza tentang sifat asli golongan Ahl al-Kisa dan para Imam. Dua cabang besar daripadanya, Imamiyah dan Ismailiyah, menganggap mereka berada dalam keadaan Ismah "tidak mungkin melakukan kesilapan", suatu keyakinan yang berasal dari ayat penyucian dalam al-Quran. Sebaliknya, cabang ketiga, para Zaidi, melihat mereka hanya sebagai tokoh politik dengan tugas untuk memimpin pemberontakan bagi melawan pihak pemerintah/penguasa yang korup.
Hadis Golongan BerjubahSunting
Hadis daripada Golongan Berjubah atau dalam bahasa Inggerisnya (The Hadith of The Cloak) (Arabic: حديث الكساء Hadith-e-Kisa) merujuk kepada Ahl al-Kisa. Hadis adalah kisah dari sebuah kejadian di mana Nabi Islam Nabi Muhammad berkumpul bersama Hassan bin Ali, Hussein bin Ali, Ali bin Abi Talib dan Fatimah di bawah jubahnya(lamparan jubah yang besar).Perkara ini diterangkan dalam banyak Periwayatan Hadis, termasuklah Hadis yang yang diriwayatkan oleh Sahih Muslim, di mana Nabi Muhammad secara istimewanya telah mengatakan frasa Ahl al-Bayt (bermaksud rumah tangga Muhammad atau, harfiahnya, orang-orang rumah) daripada bahagian kedua dari ayat 33:33 daripada Al Quran, ayat disebut "Ayat Al-Tathir" atau "ayat penyucian".
Ini adalah pusat hadith dalam hal perbezaan antara Syiah dan Sunni umat Islam (bersama dengan beberapa hadith dan Ayat dalam Al Quran ) kerana ini adalah asas bagi Syiah menyatakan bahawa umat Islam seharusnya hanya tinggal bersama sistem kerajaan yang mengamalkan nasab keturunan dengan garis langsung Nabi Muhammad melalui Fatimah dan Ali bin Abi Talib, selain juga sebagai asas bagi mereka untuk melanjutkan dakwaan bahawa keturunan tertentu Muhammad adalah sempurna: titik-titik penerangan ini membuatkan masyarakat Sunni Muslim sangat tidak bersetuju. Mereka (Muslim Sunni) mendakwa bahawa istilah tersebut mempunyai makna yang lebih luas dan tidak hanya tertentunya akan kuasanya tersebut hanya dalam keluarga Nabi Muhammad sahaja secara eksklusif. Muslim Sunni juga mendakwa bahawa adalah mungkin (adil) untuk setiap orang yang hidup benar-benar dalam iman Islam turut boleh mencapai kemurnian atau kuasa kerohanian yang jitu.
Pandangan Sunni MuslimSunting
Berkenaan ayat, Sunni mempertiaki bahawa ayat ini berkenaan kepentingan rohani atau kuasa isteri Nabi Muhammad dana keturunannya atau pekerjanya (ahli isi rumahnya - 'Bayt' bererti rumah), for in the verse some un-authentic Sunni hadiths nonetheless relate the legacy of Muhammad to the definition of Ahl al-Bayt. But its not for the physical succession. Sahih Muslim Book 031, Number 5955:
'A'isha reported that Muhammad went out one morning wearing a striped cloak of the black camel's hair that there came Hasan b. 'Ali. He wrapped him under it, then came Husain and he wrapped him under it along with the other one (Hasan). Then came Fatima and he took her under it, then came 'Ali and he also took him under it and then said: Allah only desires to take away any uncleanliness from you, O people of the household, and purify you (thorough purifying)
Pandangan Syiah MuslimSunting
Shi'a writers claim that the narrative shows that Muhammad, Fatima, Ali, Hasan and Husayn are the sole members of "Ahl al-Bayt" (lit. people of the house). Shias view this as an illustration of God's confirmation of the purity and sinlessness of those five, "Ahl al-Bayt". This, and other events, leading to the doctrine of the sinlessness of the Ahl al-Bayt. i.e., that Ahl al-Bayt are given the exclusive guardianship of Islam by Allah, since they alone are sinless.
This is a very important hadith for Shia Muslims, along many more ahadith and verses in the Qur'an, as the foundation for the Shia claim that governorship of the Muslim community should be only in the posterity of Muhammad as the base for claims that some descendants of Muhammad are infallible (ismah).
Ringkasan dari PerbalahanSunting
Sunni Scholars hold that the wives of Muhammad were included in the second part of the verse 33:33, since they are addressed in the beginning of verse 33:33. Sunnis reject the notion that the end of this verse would be a stand-alone blessing, meant exclusively for Muhammad, Ali, Fatima, Hasan and Husain, as they have in mind the context of the verse as a whole and the one preceding it.
The Shia counter-argument claims that the verse itself says "only", implying that the blessing of this merit is exclusive to a single group and one other than the wives. i.e., Allah desires to keep away the uncleanness from "only" you, "O people of the House", and not from anyone else, and this is why the six stern commandments of the other verses are given to the wives, because they are not protected and must act accordingly; the "people of the house", on the other hand, need no such instructions. The Shi'a also point out that the rhetoric changes to a masculine tone in the final part of the verse whereas is was feminine before that.
Shias also argue that the first part of the verse addresses a person or group in the feminine gender, while the second part addresses in the masculine gender, meaning that at least one person in the group is a male.
Wilfred Madelung makes the following observation on the verse of purification: "Who are the 'people of the house' here? The pronoun referring to them is in the masculine plural, while the preceding part of the verse is in the feminine plural. This change of gender has evidently contributed to the birth of various accounts of a legendary character, attaching the latter part of the verse to the five People of the Mantle (ahl al-kisā'): Muhammad, 'Ali, Fātima, Hasan and Husayn. In spite of the obvious Shí'ite significance, the great majority of the reports quoted by al-Tabari in his commentary on this verse support this interpretation." Madelung, The Succession to Muhammad, p. 14-15.
According to the Sunni hadith collections, it is narrated that during the 9th - 10th year after hijra an Arab Christian envoy from Najran (currently in northern Yemen and partly in Saudi Arabia) came to the Muhammad (Sullah ho Alae hey wa Alaehi Wasalam) to argue which of the two parties erred in its doctrine concerning Jesus (Quran 3:61). Muhammad (Sullah ho Alae hey wa Alaehi Wasalam) offered to do the Arabic tradition known as Mubahala, where each conflicting party should cover themselves, and together all parties ask God sincerely to destroy and inflict with curses on the lying party and their families. Muhammad (Sullah ho Alae hey wa Alaehi Wasalam), to prove to them that he is a prophet, brought his daughter Fatimah (Razi Allah Taellah Anho) and his surviving grandchildren, Hasan and Hussein, and Ali ibn Abi Talib and came back to the Christians and said this is my family (Ahl) and covered himself and his family with a cloak.
The Shia claim that this authentic hadith proves whom the Quran is referring to when it mentions the Ahlul-Bayt (Arabic: أهل البيت or Household), which includes only Ali(Karam Allah Wajaho), Fatimah(Razi Allah Taellah Anho), and their descendants. Sunni dispute that this verse was about Muhammad(Sallallahu Alaihi wa Salaam)'s wives and their children and even their servants.
Pandangan Syiah MuslimSunting
The Shia celebrate this event as Eid-e Mubahala. This hadith provides the background for the "purification verse" or ayah al-tatheer from surah Al-Ahzab in the Quran wherby Allah explicitly identified who are the Ahlul Bayt:
"And abide quietly in your homes, and do not flaunt your charms as they used to flaunt them in the old days of pagan ignorance; and be constant in prayer, and render the purifying dues, and pay heed unto Allah and His Apostle: Allah wishes to remove all filth and impurity from you, O People of the House of the Prophet, and to render you utterly free of all pollution." (33:33)
The tradition about this hadith goes from different sources to Fatimah, the daughter of Muhammad. She narrated that once her father visited her home, he had fever and was not feeling well, he asked for a Yemeni cloak which Fatimah brought to him and folded it around him. Later he was joined in that Yemeni cloak by his grandsons Hasan and Hussein, who were followed by their father Ali ibn Abi Talib, who was cousin and son-in-law of Muhammad. Finally Fatimah asked the permission to enter that cloak. When all five of them joined together under the cloak, Muhammad narrated the Quranic verse 33:33 to those under the cloak that all five of them are chosen ones, and he further stated that he wants from Allah to keep all impurities out of reach and away from all of us. Muhammad then prayed to Allah to declare all five of them as his Ahlul Bayt and keep away the Najasat (impurities). Allah at that request immediately sent Gabriel to reveal to Muhammad that all the five under the cloak are dearest and closest to Allah and they are Taher (purest of the pure) without any traces of impurities.
Pandangan Sunni IslamSunting
Many Sunni scholars remark that the "purification verse" was revealed concerning five people: Muhammad, Ali, Fatimah, Hasan and Husayn. Others maintain that the "purification verse" cannot refer to the inerrancy of the Imams because the context in which it occurs relates to the wives of Muhammad and necessitates that it, too, should refer to them, or that at the very least they cannot be excluded from the category it addresses. If it were to imply inerrancy, then the wives of Muhammad would also have to be inerrant, a belief that Sunni scholars do not hold. Shia scholars, however, do believe in the infallibility of Prophet Muhammad.
Nevertheless, according to the Sunni historian al-Tabari, the term ahl al-bayt refers to ‘Ali, Fatima, Hasan, and Husayn. In reference to verse 33:33, L. Veccia Vaglieri, in her Encyclopedia of Islam article entitled "Fatima", writes:
"[…] the preceding verses contain instructions to the wives of Muhammed, and there the verbs and pronouns are in the feminine plural; but in this verse, addressed to the People of the House, the pronouns are in the masculine plural. Thus, it has been said, it is no longer a question of Muhammed’s wives, or of them alone…. The expression Ahl al-bayt can only mean “Family of the Prophet”."
The hadith of the cloak and the purification verse was utilized at various times by the Ahlul Bayt to assert their claims to political and spiritual leadership of the Muslim community. For example, at the gathering that was convened after the death of Umar in 644 to select a caliph, Ali made the following argument: "Is there any among us apart from myself concerning whom the "purification verse" was revealed?" When they answered "no" he proceeded:"The People of the House are overflowing with abundant virtue, for the Quran says, "Allah wishes to remove all filth and impurity from you O House of the Prophet, and to render you utterly free of pollution." (33:33) Allah has therefore removed from us all evil, outer and inner, and placed us firmly on the path of truth and righteousness.
- Sahih Muslim, Chapter of virtues of companions, section of virtues of Ali (Razi Allah Taellah Anho), 1980 Edition Pub. in Saudi Arabia, Arabic version, v4, p1871, the end of tradition #32 and Sahih al-Tirmidhi, v5, p654
- S.M.H Tabataba'i, al Mizan fi tafsir al-Quran, p. 311 Beirut 1973
- found in the topic: List of Islamic and Muslim related topics
- A portion of this Surah sums up the lessons of the Battle of the Trench and must have been revealed some time after that battle (Shauwal, five years after hijrah) The marriage with Zainab is referred to in verse 37 also took place in the same year
- Sahih Muslim, Chapter of virtues of companions, section of the virtues of the Ahlul-Bayt of the Prophet, 1980 Edition Pub. in Saudi Arabia, Arabic version, v4, p1883, Tradition #61
- Ibid, p. 126:al-Suyuti, al-Durr al-Manthur, Vol. V, p.199; Ahmad ibn Hanbal, al Musnad, Vol. I, p.331; Fakhr al-Din al-Razi, al-Tafsir al-Kabir, Vol. I, p.783; Ibn Hajar, al-Sawa'iq p.85
- al-Bahrani, Ghayat al-Marum, p.295