Universiti Paris (Perancis: Université de Paris ) telah ditubuhkan pada pertengahan kurun ke-12, lebih lagi di antara 1160 dan 1170 (atau kemungkinan seawal 1150). Pada 1970 ia mengatur semula sebagai 13 universiti berotonomi (Universiti Paris I–XIII). Universiti ini sering dirujukkan sebagai Sorbonne atau La Sorbonne selepas institusi collegiate (Collège de Sorbonne) ditubuhkan di sekitar 1257 oleh Robert de Sorbon. Universiti seperti itu adalah lebih tua dan tidak pernah dipusatkan secara keseluruhan Sorbonne. Dari tiga belas universiti pengganti kini, yang keempat pertama dalam bangunan bersejarah Sorbonne, dan tiga termasuk "Sorbonne" dalam nama-nama mereka.
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Universiti-universitinya kini adalah pada dasarnya bebas dari satu sama lain, dan sesetengah berada di bawah Académie Créteil atau Académie Versailles daripada Académie Paris. Sesetengah fungsi pentadbiran residual dari tiga belas universiti secara rasmi diseliakan oleh seorang canselor umum, Rector Académie aris, dengan pejabat-pejabat di Sorbonne. Pada 2006, Maurice Quénet adalah Rector Akademi Paris dan Canselor Universiti-universiti Paris. Naib Canselor Universiti-universiti Paris ialah Pierre Gregory. Sungguhpun hubungan ini, dan hubungan bersejarah, tiadanya sistem Universiti Paris yang mengikat universiti-universiti di suatu peringkat akademi.
Asal usul dan pertubuhan awal sunting
Mirip dengan universiti zaman pertengahan awal lain (Universiti Bologna, Universiti Cambridge, Universiti Oxford), Universiti Paris telah ditubuhkan secara baik sebelum ia menerima suatu tindakan asas yang khusus dari Gereja pada 1200. Rujukan bersejarah terawal pada universiti ditemukan dalam rujukan Matthew dari Paris pada bilik kajian gurunya sendiri re(seorang abot dari St. Albans) dan penerimaannya ke dalam "persahabatan Tuan-Tuan dipilih" di universiti Paris pada lebih kurang tahun 1170. Tambahan, ia diketahui bahawa Paus Innocent III, mempunyai pepausan ditanggap pada usia 37 tahun, telah menamatkan pelajarannya di Universiti Paris pada 1182 pada usia 21 tahun. Ia membesar di bahagian terkemudian kurun keduabelas di keliling Katedral Notre Dame sebagai corporation mirip dengan perbadanan zaman pertengahan lain, seperti persatuan of saudagar atau pekerja mahir. Istilah bahasa Latin zaman pertengahan telah universitas telah mempunyai lebih makna umum dari sebuah persatuan. The university of Paris was known as a universitas magistrorum et scholarium (a guild of masters and scholars). Later universities such as the Charles University in Prague or the University of Heidelberg had different origins. Universiti Paris telah digelarkan sebuah universitas magistrorum et scholarium (sebuah persatuan tuan dan sarjana). Kenudian universiti seperti Universiti Charles di Praha atau Universiti Heidelberg telah mempunyai asal-usul lain.
Universiti ini mempunyai empat fakulti: Seni, Perubatan, Undang-undang, dan Teologi. Fakulti Seni adalah yang paling rendah pada penempatan, tetapi juga yang terbesar apabila para pelajar perlu bersiswazah di sana harus diadmitted salah satu dari fakulti lebih tingginya. Para pelajar telah dibahagikan ke dalam empat nationes menurut dengan asal usul bahasa atau rantau: Perancis, Normandy, Picardy, dan England. Yang terakhir digelarkan negara Alemannian (Jerman). Pergerakan pada tiap negara adalah lebih lebar daripada nama-nama yang mungkin mencadangkan: negara Inggeris-Jerman termasuk para pelajar dari Scandinavia dan Eropah Timur.
Fakulti dan sistem negara Universiti Paris (bersama dengan yang pada Universiti Bologna) menjadi model untuk semua universiti zaman pertengahan kemudian. Di bawah pentadbiran Gereja, pelajar memakai jubah dan menyukur bahagian atas kepala mereka dalam tonsure, untuk menandakan mereka di bawah perlindungan gereja. Pelajar berjalan menurut peraturan dan undang-undang Gereja dan tidak tertakluk pada undang-undang atau halaman raja. Ini menyampaikan para pelajar menyalahgunakan undang-undang bandaraya, yang tidak mempunyai tempat meminta tolong lanjut pada keadilan dan telah merayu ke mahkamah Gereja. Para pelajar seringnya terlalu muda, memasuki sekolah pada usia 13 atau 14 dan diam selama 6 ke 12 tahun.
Sekolah-sekolah asal sunting
Tiga sekolah khususnya masyhur di Paris, palatine atau sekolah istana, sekolah Notre-Dame, dan yang pada Sainte-Geneviève Abbey. Kemerosotan diraja membawa kemerosotan yang pertama. Yang dua lain adalah purba tetapi tidak mempunyai penglihatan dalam kurun-kurun awal. Kemuliaan sekolah palatine tanpa ragu-ragu melindungi milik mereka, sehingga ia secara penuh memberikan jalan pada mereka. Kedua-dua pusat ini lebih sering dilawat dan banyak dari tuan-tuan mereka berkayinan dengan pelajaran mereka.
Profesor pertama yang terkenal di sekolah Ste-Geneviève adalah Hubold, yang tinggal semasa kurun kesepuluh. Tidak puas hati dengan kursus-kursus di Liège, dia melanjutkan pelajarannya di Paris, memasuki atau menyekutukan dirinya dengan adegan Ste-Geneviève, dan menarik hati banyak pelajar melalui pengajarannya. Profesor yang berbeza dari sekolah Notre-Dame pada kurun kesebelas termasuk Lambert, pengikut Filbert dari Chartres; Drogo dari Paris; Manegold dari Jerman; Anselm dari Laon. Kedua-dua sekolah ini menarik cendekiawan dari setiap negara dan menghasilkan banyak lelaki berilustrasi, di kalangan mereka adalah: St. Stanislaus dari Szczepanów, Biskop dari Kraków; Gebbard, Archbiskop dari Salzburg; St. Stephen, Abbot ketiga dari Cîteaux; Robert d'Arbrissel, pengasas Abbey dari Fontevrault dsb. Tiga lelaki lain yang menambahkan prestij pada sekolah Notre-Dame dan Ste-Geneviève adalah William of Champeaux, Abélard, dan Peter Lombard.
Arahan berkemanusiaan terdiri dari grammar, rhetoric, dialectics, arithmetic, geometry, music, and astronomy (trivium and quadrivium). To the higher instruction belonged dogmatic and moral theology, whose source was the Scriptures and the Patristic Fathers. It was completed by the study of Canon law.
The school of St-Victor arose to rival those of Notre-Dame and Ste-Geneviève. It was founded by William of Champeaux when he withdrew to the Abbey of St-Victor. Its most famous professors are Hugh of St. Victor and Richard of St. Victor.
The plan of studies expanded in the schools of Paris, as it did elsewhere. A Bolognese compendium of canon law called the Decretum Gratiani brought about a division of the theology department. Hitherto the discipline of the Church had not been separate from so-called theology; they were studied together under the same professor. But this vast collection necessitated a special course, which was undertaken first at Bologna, where Roman law was taught. In France, first Orléans and then Paris erected chairs of canon law. Before the end of the twelfth century, the Decretals of Gerard (or Girard) La Pucelle, Mathieu d'Angers, and Anselm (or Anselle) of Paris, were added to the Decretum Gratiani. However, civil law was not included at Paris.
In the twelfth century, medicine began to be publicly taught at Paris: the first professor of medicine in Paris records is Hugo, physicus excellens qui quadrivium docuit.
Two things were necessary to be a professor: knowledge and appointment. Knowledge was proved by examination, the appointment came from the examiner himself, who was the head of the school, and was known as scholasticus, capiscol, and chancellor. This was called the licence or faculty to teach. The licence had to be granted freely. No one could teach without it; on the other hand, the examiner could not refuse to award it when the applicant deserved it.
The School of St-Victor, which shared the obligations as well as the immunities of the abbey, conferred the licence in its own right; the school of Notre-Dame depended on the diocese, that of Ste-Geneviève on the abbey or chapter. The diocese and the abbey or chapter, through their chancellor, gave professorial investiture in their respective territories where they had jurisdiction.
Besides Notre-Dame, Ste-Geneviève, and St-Victor, there were several schools on the "Island" and on the "Mount". "Whoever", says Crevier "had the right to teach might open a school where he pleased, provided it was not in the vicinity of a principal school." Thus a certain Adam, who was of English origin, kept his "near the Petit Pont"; another Adam, Parisian by birth, "taught at the Grand Pont which is called the Pont-au-Change" (Hist. de l'Univers. de Paris, I, 272).
The number of students in the school of the capital grew constantly, so that lodgings were insufficient. French students included princes of the blood, sons of the nobility, and the most distinguished youths of the kingdom. The courses at Paris were considered so necessary as a completion of studies that many foreigners flocked to them. Popes Celestine II, Adrian IV and Innocent III studied at Paris, and Alexander III sent his nephews there.
Illustrious German and British students included Otto of Freisingen, Cardinal Conrad, Archbishop of Mainz, St. Thomas of Canterbury, and John of Salisbury; while Ste-Geneviève became practically the seminary for Denmark. The chroniclers of the time called Paris the city of letters par excellence, placing it above Athens, Alexandria, Rome, and other cities: "At that time", we read in the Chroniques de St-Denis, "there flourished at Paris philosophy and all branches of learning, and there the seven arts were studied and held in such esteem as they never were at Athens, Egypt, Rome, or elsewhere in the world" ("Les gestes de Philippe-Auguste"). Poets said the same thing in their verses, and they compared it to all that was greatest, noblest, and most valuable in the world.
Soon, the university required greater organization to maintain order among the students and define the relations of the professors. First, the professors formed an association, for according to Matthew Paris, John of Celles, twenty-first Abbot of St Albans, England, was admitted as a member of the teaching corps of Paris after he had followed the courses (Vita Joannis I, XXI, abbat. S. Alban). The masters as well as the students were divided according to national origin, for as the same historian states, Henry II, King of England, in his difficulties with St. Thomas of Canterbury, wished to submit his cause to a tribunal composed of professors of Paris, chosen from various provinces (Hist. major, Henry II, to end of 1169). This was probably the beginnings of that division according to "nations" which was later to play an important part in the university. After a decision made by Celestine III, both professors and students had the privilege of being amenable only to the ecclesiastical courts, not to civil courts. Other decisions dispensed them from residence in case they possessed benefices and permitted them to receive their revenues.
The three schools of Notre-Dame, Ste-Geneviève, and St-Victor may be regarded as the triple cradle of the Universitas scholarium, which included masters and students; hence the name University. Henry Denifle and some others hold that this honour is exclusive to the school of Notre-Dame (Chartularium Universitatis Parisiensis), but the reasons do not seem convincing. He excludes St-Victor because, at the request of the abbot and the religious of St-Victor, Gregory IX in 1237 authorized them to resume the interrupted teaching of theology. But the university was in large part founded about 1208, as is shown by a Bull of Innocent III. Consequently the schools of St-Victor might well have furnished their contingent towards its formation. Secondly, Denifle excludes the schools of Ste-Geneviève because there had been no interruption in the teaching of the liberal arts. Now this is far from proved, and moreover, it seems incontestable that theology also had never ceased to be taught, which is sufficient for our point. Besides, the chancellor of Ste-Geneviève continued to give degrees in arts, something he would have ceased to have done when the university was organized if his abbey had no share in its organization. And while the name Universitas scholarium is quite intelligible on the basis of the common opinion, it is incompatible with the recent (Denifle's) view, according to which there would have been schools outside the university of Paris
Pertubuhan pada kurun ketigabelas sunting
In 1200, King Philip II issued a diploma "for the security of the scholars of Paris" that made the students subject only to ecclesiastical jurisdiction. The provost and other officers were forbidden to arrest a student for any offence, unless this was done to hand over the culprit to ecclesiastical authority. The king's officers could never lay hands on the head of the schools unless they had a mandate from an ecclesiastical authority. This action was motivated at least in part by a violent incident between students and officers outside the city walls at a pub.
In 1215, the Apostolic legate, Robert de Courçon, issued new rules governing who could become a professor. To teach the arts it was necessary to have reached the age of twenty-one, to have studied these arts at least six years, and to take an engagement as professor for at least two years. For a chair in theology the candidate had to be thirty years of age with eight years of theological studies, of which the last three years were devoted to special courses of lectures in preparation for the mastership. These studies had to be made in the local schools under the direction of a master, for at Paris one was not regarded as a scholar unless he had a particular master. Lastly, purity of morals was as important as reading. The licence was granted, according to custom, gratuitously, without oath or condition. Masters and students were permitted to unite, even by oath, in defence of their rights, when they could not otherwise obtain justice in serious matters. No mention is made either of law or of medicine, probably because these sciences were less prominent.
Priscian's "Grammar", Aristotle's "Dialectics", mathematics, astronomy, music, rhetoric and philosophy were taught in the arts course; to these might be added the Ethics of the Stagyrite and the fourth book of the Topics. But it was forbidden to read the books of Aristotle on Metaphysics and Physics, or abbreviations of them.
In 1229, a denial of justice by the queen led to suspension of the courses. The pope intervened with a Bull that began with lavish praise of the university: "Paris", said Gregory IX, "mother of the sciences, is another Cariath-Sepher, city of letters". He commissioned the Bishops of Le Mans and Senlis and the Archdeacon of Châlons to negotiate with the French Court for the restoration of the university, but by the end of 1230 they had accomplished nothing. Gregory IX then addressed a Bull of 1231 to the masters and scholars of Paris. Not only did he settle the dispute, he empowered the university to frame statutes concerning the discipline of the schools, the method of instruction, the defence of theses, the costume of the professors, and the obsequies of masters and students (expanding upon Robert de Courçon's statutes). Most importantly, the pope granted the university the right to suspend its courses, if justice were denied it, until it should receive full satisfaction.
The pope authorized Pierre Le Mangeur to collect a moderate fee for the conferring of the license of professorship. Also, for the first time, the scholars had to pay for their education: two sous weekly, to be deposited in the common fund.
The university was organized as follows: at the head of the teaching body was a rector. The office was elective and of short duration; at first it was limited to four or six weeks. Simon de Brion, legate of the Holy See in France, realizing that such frequent changes caused serious inconvenience, decided that the rectorate should last three months, and this rule was observed for three years. Then the term was lengthened to one, two, and sometimes three years. The right of election belonged to the procurators of the four nations.
Empat negara sunting
"Negara-Negara" bermuncul di bahagian kedua kurun keduabelas; mereak disebutkan dalam Bull of Honorius III pada 1222; kemudian mereka membentuk sebuah badan berbeza. Pada 1249 empat negara muncul dengan prokurator mereka, hak mereka (lebih atau kurang ditekrifkan), dan persaingan hebat mereka: negara-negara ini adalah Perancis, Inggeris, Norman, dan Picard. Selepas Perang Seratus Tahun negara Inggeris diganti oleh Jermanik. Keempat-empat negara mendirikan fakulti seni atau huruf.
Wilayah-wilayah diliputi oleh empat negara adalah:
- Negara Perancis: semua bahagian tuturan Romawi Eropah kecuali yang termasuk dalam negara Norman dan Picard
- Negara Inggeris (dinamakan 'negara Jerman' selepas Perang Seratus Tahun): Kepulauan British, bahagian tuturan Jermanik benua Eropah (kecuali yang termasuk dalam negara Picard), dan bahagian tuturan Slavik Eropah. Kebanyakan pelajar dalam negara itu datang dari Jerman dan Scotland, dan apabila ia dinamakan semula 'negara Jerman' ia kadang-kadang digelar natio Germanorum et Scotorum ("negara Jerman dan Scotland").
- Negara Norman: provinsi kegerejaan Rouen, yang berkorespon lebih kurang dengan Duchy dari Normandy. Ini adalah sebuah wilayah bertuturan Romance, tetapi ia tidak termasuk dalam negara Perancis.
- Negara Picard: biskop bertuturan Romawi Beauvais, Noyon, Amiens, Laon, dan Arras; biskop dwibahasa Thérouanne (tuturan bahasa Romawi dan Jermanik), Cambrai, dan Tournai; a large part of the bilingual bishopric of Liège; bahagian paling selatan bishopric bertuturan bahasa Jermaik Utrecht (bahagian yang bisphoric terletak selatan Sungai Meuse; yang sisanya bishopric utara Sungai Meuse milik negara Inggeris). Ia telah dianggarkan bahwa lebih kurang setengah pelajar di negara Picard adalah bertuturan bahasa-bahasa Romawi (Picard dan Walloon), dan bahagian separuh yang alin adalah penutur bahasa Jermanik (loghat Flemish Barat, Flemish Timur, Brabantian dan Limburgish).
To classify professors' knowledge, the schools of Paris gradually divided into faculties. Professors of the same science were brought into closer contact until the community of rights and interests cemented the union and made them distinct groups. The faculty of medicine seems to have been the last to form. But the four faculties were already formally established by 1254, when the university described in a letter "theology, jurisprudence, medicine, and rational, natural, and moral philosophy". The masters of theology often set the example for the other faculties, e.g. they were the first to adopt an official seal.
The faculties of theology, canon law, and medicine, were called "superior faculties". The title of "Dean" as designating the head of a faculty, came into use by 1268 in the faculties of law and medicine, and by 1296 in the faculty of theology. It seems that at first the deans were the oldest masters. The faculty of arts continued to have four procurators of its four nations and its head was the rector. As the faculties became more fully organized, the division into four nations partially disappeared for theology, law and medicine, though it continued in arts. Eventually the superior faculties included only doctors, leaving the bachelors to the faculty of arts. At this period, therefore, the university had two principal degrees, the baccalaureate and the doctorate. It was not until much later that the licentiate and the DEA became intermediate degrees.
The scattered condition of the scholars in Paris often made lodging difficult. Some students rented rooms from townspeople, who often exacted high rates while the students demanded lower. This tension between scholars and citizens would have developed into a sort of civil war if Robert de Courçon had not found the remedy of taxation. It was upheld in the Bull of Gregory IX of 1231, but with an important modification: its exercise was to be shared with the citizens. The aim was to offer the students a shelter where they would fear neither annoyance from the owners nor the dangers of the world. Thus were founded the colleges (colligere, to assemble); meaning not centers of instruction, but simple student boarding-houses. Each had a special goal, being established for students of the same nationality or the same science. Often, masters lived in each college and oversaw its activities.
Four colleges appeared in the twelfth century; they became more numerous in the thirteenth, including Collège d'Harcourt (1280) and the Collège de Sorbonne (1257). Thus the University of Paris assumed its basic form. It was composed of seven groups, the four nations of the faculty of arts, and the three superior faculties of theology, law, and medicine. Men who had studied at Paris became an increasing presence in the high ranks of the Church hierarchy; eventually, students at the University of Paris saw it as a right that they would be eligible to benifices. Church officials such as St. Louis and Clement IV lavishly praised the university.
Besides the famous Collège de Sorbonne, other collegia provided housing and meals to students, sometimes for those of the same geographical origin in a more restricted sense than that represented by the nations. There were 8 or 9 collegia for foreign students: the oldest one was the Danish college, the Collegium danicum or dacicum, founded in 1257. Swedish students could, during the 13 and 14th centuries, live in one of three Swedish colleges, the Collegium Upsaliense, the Collegium Scarense or the Collegium Lincopense, named after the Swedish dioceses of Uppsala, Skara and Linköping. The German College, Collegium alemanicum is mentioned as early as 1345, the Scots college or Collegium scoticum was founded in 1325. The Lombard college or Collegium lombardicum was founded in the 1330s. The Collegium constantinopolitanum was, according to a tradition, founded in the 13th century to facilitate a merging of the eastern and western churches. It was later reorganized as a French institution, the Collège de la Marche-Winville. The Collège de Montaigu was founded by the Archbishop of Rouen in the 14th century, and reformed in the 15th century by the humanist Jan Standonck, when it attracted reformers from within the Roman Catholic Church (such as Erasmus and Ignatius of Loyola) and those who subsequently became Protestants (John Calvin and John Knox).
Sejarah kemudian sunting
In the fifteenth century, Guillaume d'Estouteville, a cardinal and Apostolic legate, carried out a project to reform the university, correcting its abuses and introducing various needed modifications. This reform was less an innovation than a recall to the better observance of the old rules, as was the reform of 1600, undertaken by the royal government, with regard to the three superior faculties. However, as to the faculty of arts, the reform of 1600 introduced the study of Greek, of the French poets and orators, and of additional classical figures like Hesiod, Plato, Demosthenes, Cicero, Virgil, and Sallust. The prohibition to teach civil law was never well observed at Paris, but in 1679 Louis XIV authorized the teaching of civil law in the faculty of decretals. Thus, the name "faculty of law" replaced that of "faculty of decretals". The colleges meantime had multiplied; those of Cardinal Le-Moine and Navarre were founded in the fourteenth century. The Hundred Years' War was fatal to these establishments, but the university set about remedying the injury.
Remarkable for its teaching, the University of Paris played an important part: in the Church, during the Great Schism; in the councils, in dealing with heresies and divisions; in the State, during national crises. Under the domination of England it played a role in the trial of Joan of Arc.
Proud of its rights and privileges, the University of Paris fought energetically to maintain them, hence the long struggle against the mendicant orders on academic as well as on religious grounds. Hence also the shorter conflict against the Jesuits, who claimed by word and action a share in its teaching. It made liberal use of its right to decide administratively according to occasion and necessity. In some instances it openly endorsed the censures of the faculty of theology and pronounced condemnation in its own name, as in the case of the Flagellants.
Its patriotism was especially manifested on two occasions. During the captivity of King John, when Paris was given over to factions, the university sought to restore peace; and under Louis XIV, when the Spaniards crossed the Somme and threatened the capital, it placed two hundred men at the king's disposal and offered the Master of Arts degree gratuitously to scholars who should present certificates of service in the army (Jourdain, Hist. de l'Univers. de Paris au XVIIe et XVIIIe siècle, 132-34; Archiv. du ministère de l'instruction publique).
Kebinasaan kolej dan pertubuhan Universiti Perancis sunting
Universiti kuno hilang dengan Perancis kuno sewaktu Revolusi Perancis. Pada 15 Sept., 1793, dipetisyen oleh Jabatan Paris dan beberapa kelompok jabatan, Konvensyen Negara berkeputusan bahawa berdikari dari sekolah rendah,
"seharusnya didirikan dalam Republik tiga peringkat progresif arahan; pertama untuk ilmu amat diperlukan to artisans and workmen of all kinds; the second for further knowledge necessary to those intending to embrace the other professions of society; and the third for those branches of instruction the study of which is not within the reach of all men".
Measures were to be taken immediately: "For means of execution the department and the municipality of Paris are authorized to consult with the Committee of Public Instruction of the National Convention, in order that these establishments shall be put in action by 1 November next, and consequently colleges now in operation and the faculties of theology, medicine, arts, and law are suppressed throughout the Republic". This was the death-sentence of the university. It was not to be restored after the Revolution had subsided, any more than those of the provinces.
All the faculties were replaced by a single centre, the University of France. After a century, people recognized that the new system was less favourable to study. They restored the old system of separate faculties in 1896, but without the faculty of theology.
Pemberontakan pelajar dan pertubuhan semula sunting
Pada 1968 pemberontakan budaya digelarkan "Mei Perancis" (lihat juga Situationist International), menyebabkan penutupan universiti untuk hanya kali ketiga dalam sejarah. Peristiwa pertama adalah pada 1229, dan yang kedua disebabkan penyerbuan oleh tentera Jerman 1940. Pada 1968 par pelajar menunjuk perasaan pengaturan universiti dan hadnya, dan jua isu masyarakat umum.
Universiti Paris telah sejak itu mengatur semula ke dalam beberapa universiti dan sekolah autonomi, sesetengah dari mana membawa nama Sorbonne. Kampus bersejarah, terletak di Quartier Latin di Rive Gauche, di 5th arrondissement Paris, mencirikan lukisan mural oleh Pierre Puvis de Chavannes. Ia dibahagikan untuk kegunaan di kalangan beberapa universiti Paris, École nationale des chartes yang berprestij dan perkhidmatan Rector.
Pada Mac 2006 la Sorbonne telah diduduki semula sebagai sebahagian dari tunjuk perasaan luas negara terhadap pengenalan kerajaan CPE (kontrak pekerjaan pertama), yang mana sesetengah orang muda fikir akan mengesan mereka secara buruk.
Universiti kini sunting
Tiga belas universiti pengganti Universiti Paris kini dipisahkan melebihi tiga akademi rantau Île-de-France. Penggabungan berlaku pada 2017 dan 2019 untuk menyatukan beberapa universiti. Bilangan universiti kini 11.
Tiga belas universiti pengganti sunting
Lima perikatan universiti sunting
Kebanyakan universiti ini telah memasuki, atau dalam proses membentuk (Mac 2008), pengumpulan baru di sepanjang barisan sebuah universiti kolej. Biasanya, pengumpulan ini mendapatkan bentuk undang-undang sebuah Pusat untuk Penyelidikan dan Pendidikan Tinggi (Pole de Recherche et d'Enseignement Supérieur, atau PRES), walaupun sesetengah telah memilih bentuk-bentuk lain pertubuhan. Pengumpulan ini menyampurkan universiti dan grandes écoles.
Ada lima pusat seperti itu dalam rantau Paris:
Dalam rantau Paris, suatu perikatan keenam wujud : PRES Cercy-Pontoise-Val d'Oise, dipusatkan di CY Cergy Paris Université.
Lihat juga sunting
- Haskins, C. H.: The Rise of Universities, page 292. Henry Holt and Company, 1923.
- "salinan arkib". Diarkibkan daripada yang asal pada 2006-02-06. Dicapai pada 2010-01-27.
- "salinan arkib". Diarkibkan daripada yang asal pada 2005-12-01. Dicapai pada 2010-01-27.
- Rubenstein, Richard E.: Aristotle's Children, page 161. Harvest Books, 2004.
- Miscellanea Scotica.: A Collection of Tracts Relating to the History
- Historical Tales of the Wars of Scotland, and of the Border Raids
- « Picard » et « Picardie », espace linguistique et structures sociopolitiques, by Serge Lusignan and Diane Gervais, August 2008
- Rencana ini memuatkan teks dari suatu penerbitan yang kini berada dalam domain awam: Herbermann, Charles, penyunting (1913). "nama rencana diperlukan". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton. Text "Universiti Paris" ignored (bantuan); Cite has empty unknown parameter:
|coauthors=(bantuan)CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
Bacaan lanjut sunting
- André Tuilier: Histoire de l'Université de Paris et de la Sorbonne ("Sejarah Universiti Paris dan Sorbonne"), dalam 2 jilid (Dari Asal-Usulnya ke Richelieu, Dari Louis XIV ke Krisis 1968), Paris: Nouvelle Librairie de France, 1997 ;
- Jean-Louis Leutrat: De l'Université aux Universités ("Dari Universiti ke Universiti-universiti"), Paris: Association des Universités de Paris, 1997
- Philippe Rive: La Sorbonne et sa reconstruction ("Sorbonne dan Pembinaan semulanya"), Lyon: La Manufacture, 1987
- Jacques Verger: Histoire des Universités en France ("Sejarah Universiti Perancis"), Toulouse: Editions Privat, 1986
Pautan luar sunting
|Wikimedia Commons mempunyai media berkaitan Universiti Paris
- Academi Paris (Perancis)
- Sorbonne - Universités Paris I, III, IV dan V (laman utama rasmi)
- Sejarah Universiti Paris Diarkibkan 2007-10-08 di Wayback Machine (Perancis)
- News coverage of the most recent occupation of the Sorbonne
- Education Authority of Paris (Perancis)
- english language coverage of the struggle against the CPE in France, including the occupations and demonstrations around the Sorbonne