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Yahudi Amerika, adalah warganegara Amerika Syarikat yang merupakan keturunan Yahudi. Sebahagian besar tinjauan pendapat kependudukan memperkirakan jumlah penduduk mereka adalah antara 5.2 juta [2] sehingga 6.4 juta orang [3]. Dengan demikian penduduk masyarakat Yahudi di Amerika Syarikat dapat dianggap yang terbesar atau nombor dua terbesar di dunia setelah Israel. Masyarakat Yahudi Amerika Syarikat sebahagian besar adalah keturunan Yahudi Ashkenazi [4], meskipun juga terdapat keturunan Yahudi Sefardim dan Yahudi Mizrahi, serta beberapa suku Yahudi lainnya. Kepercayaan yang dianut juga meliputi pelbagai aliran agama Yahudi; daripada masyarakat Ultra-Ortodoks Haredi sampai ke masyarakat Yahudi yang benar-benar berfahaman duniawi.

Yahudi Amerika
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Jumlah populasi
6,400,000
2.1% dari penduduk AS[1]
Kawasan ramai penduduk
Timur Laut, Florida, Pantai Barat, Chicago
Bahasa
Bahasa-bahasa Yahudi Asli
Ibrani, Yiddish, Ladino, dan bahasa-bahasa Yahudi yang lain (yang terancam, dan sesetengahnya sudah pupus) Bahasa-bahasa Keagamaan
Ibrani and Aramia
Bahasa-bahasa utama dan yang digunakan
Bahasa Inggeris
Agama
Agama Yahudi


Taburan Yahudi AmerikaSunting

Menurut Pusat Kajian Glenmary, yang menerbitkan Religious Congregations and Membership di Amerika Syarikat [5], 100 daerah dan bandar pada 2000 dengan masyarakat Yahudi yang terbesar, berdasarkan peratusan jumlah penduduk, adalah:

Daerah Penduduk
Yahudi
%
jumlahnya
1 Rockland County, New York 90,000 31.4%
2 New York County, New York[5] 314,500 20.5%
3 Falls Church, Virginia 1,800 17.4%
4 Fairfax, Virginia 3,600 16.7%
5 Nassau County, New York 207,000 15.5%
6 Kings County, New York[6] 379,000 15.4%
7 Palm Beach County, Florida 167,000 14.8%
8 Broward County, Florida 213,000 13.1%
9 Queens County, New York 238,000 10.7%
10 Monmouth County, New Jersey 65,000 10.6%
11 Westchester County, New York 94,000 10.2%
12 Sullivan County, New York 7,425 10.0%
13 Essex County, New Jersey 76,200 9.6%
14 Bergen County, New Jersey 83,700 9.5%
15 Montgomery County, Maryland 83,800 9.1%
16 Baltimore, Maryland 56,500 8.7%
17 Fulton County, Georgia 65,900 8.1%
18 Montgomery County, Pennsylvania 59,550 7.9%
19 Middlesex County, Massachusetts 113,700 7.8%
20 Richmond County, New York[7] 33,700 7.6%
21 Marin County, California 18,500 7.5%
22 Camden County, New Jersey 36,000 7.1%
22 Morris County, New Jersey 33,500 7.1%
24 Suffolk County, New York 100,000 7.0%
25 Denver County, Colorado 38,100 6.6%
26 Oakland County, Michigan 77,200 6.5%
27 San Francisco County, California 49,500 6.4%
28 Bronx County, New York 83,700 6.3%
29 Middlesex County, New Jersey 45,000 6.0%
30 Los Angeles County, California 564,700 5.9%
30 Norfolk County, Massachusetts 38,300 5.9%
32 Atlantic County, New Jersey 14,600 5.8%
32 Bucks County, Pennsylvania 34,800 5.8%
32 Union County, New Jersey 30,100 5.8%
35 Cuyahoga County, Ohio 79,000 5.7%
35 Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania 86,600 5.7%
37 Clark County, Nevada 75,000 5.5%
37 Miami-Dade County, Florida 124,000 5.5%
39 Baltimore County, Maryland 38,000 5.0%
39 Pitkin County, Colorado 750 5.0%
39 Plymouth County, Massachusetts 23,600 5.0%
42 St. Louis County, Missouri 47,100 4.6%
43 Boulder County, Colorado 13,200 4.5%
43 Washington, District of Columbia 25,500 4.5%
45 Cook County, Illinois 234,400 4.4%
45 Fairfield County, Connecticut 38,800 4.4%
45 Orange County, New York 15,000 4.4%
48 Alexandria, Virginia 5,400 4.2%
49 Albany County, New York 12,000 4.1%
49 Alpine County, California 50 4.1%
49 Sarasota County, Florida 13,500 4.1%
Daerah Penduduk
Yahudi
%
jumlahnya
52 Howard County, Maryland 10,000 4.0%
53 Lake County, Illinois 25,000 3.9%
54 Portsmouth, Virginia 3,800 3.8%
55 Somerset County, New Jersey 11,100 3.7%
55 West Baton Rouge Parish, Louisiana 800 3.7%
57 Rockdale County, Georgia 2,500 3.6%
57 Suffolk County, Massachusetts 24,700 3.6%
59 Bristol County, Rhode Island 1,760 3.5%
59 Custer County, Idaho 150 3.5%
59 Hartford County, Connecticut 30,000 3.5%
59 New Haven County, Connecticut 28,900 3.5%
59 Passaic County, New Jersey 17,000 3.5%
59 San Mateo County, California 24,500 3.5%
59 Schenectady County, New York 5,200 3.5%
66 Ulster County, New York 5,900 3.3%
67 Norfolk, Virginia 7,600 3.2%
67 Santa Clara County, California 54,000 3.2%
69 Burlington County, New Jersey 13,000 3.1%
69 Monroe County, New York 22,500 3.1%
71 Essex County, Massachusetts 21,700 3.0%
72 Berkshire County, Massachusetts 3,900 2.9%
72 Delaware County, Pennsylvania 15,700 2.9%
72 Monroe County, Michigan 4,200 2.9%
72 Multnomah County, Oregon 19,300 2.9%
76 Hennepin County, Minnesota 31,600 2.8%
76 Sussex County, New Jersey 4,100 2.8%
78 Allegheny County, Pennsylvania 34,600 2.7%
78 Fayette County, Georgia 2,500 2.7%
78 Hamilton County, Ohio 22,500 2.7%
78 Johnson County, Kansas 12,000 2.7%
82 Mercer County, New Jersey 9,100 2.6%
82 Nantucket County, Massachusetts 250 2.6%
82 Ozaukee County, Wisconsin 2,100 2.6%
82 Pinellas County, Florida 24,200 2.6%
82 Prince George's County, Maryland 20,700 2.6%
82 Worcester County, Massachusetts 19,500 2.6%
88 San Diego County, California 70,000 2.5%
89 New Castle County, Delaware 11,900 2.4%
89 Pima County, Arizona 20,000 2.4%
91 Alameda County, California 32,500 2.3%
91 Chester County, Pennsylvania 10,100 2.3%
91 Contra Costa County, California 22,000 2.3%
91 Cumberland County, Maine 6,000 2.3%
91 Hampden County, Massachusetts 10,600 2.3%
91 Ocean County, New Jersey 11,500 2.3%
91 Santa Cruz County, California 6,000 2.3%
98 Bristol County, Massachusetts 11,600 2.2%
98 Clay County, Georgia 75 2.2%
98 Washtenaw County, Michigan 7,000 2.2%

Masyarakat Yahudi Amerika yang terbesarSunting

(Menurut huruf mengikut negeri dan daerah)

California
Northern California Berkeley · Marin County · Oakland · Pleasanton · San Francisco · Santa Clara County · Walnut Creek
Southern California Agoura Hills · Bel Air · Beverly Hills · Brentwood, Los Angeles · Burbank · Calabasas · Coachella Valley · Fairfax District, Los Angeles · Glendale · Irvine · Lake Forest · Newport Beach · Palm Springs · Pasadena · San Fernando Valley (west and south) · Santa Monica · Sun City · Thousand Oaks · Ventura County · West Hollywood · Westlake Village · West Los Angeles
Connecticut
Hamden · Stamford · West Hartford · Westport · Woodbridge
Florida
Central Florida Ormond Beach
South Florida Aventura · Bradenton · Boca Raton · Boynton Beach · Delray Beach · Fort Lauderdale · Golden Beach · Lake Worth · Miami Beach · Miami · Sarasota · Sunny Isles Beach · West Palm Beach
Georgia
Atlanta
Illinois
Arlington Heights · Buffalo Grove · Chicago (Gold Coast · Hyde Park · West Rogers Park) · Deerfield · Des Plaines · Evanston · Flossmoor · Glenview · Highland Park · Lincolnwood · Long Grove · Morton Grove · Northbrook · Skokie · Wilmette
Maryland · District of Columbia
Baltimore · Owings Mills · Pikesville · Reisterstown · Aspen Hill · Bethesda · Chevy Chase · Gaithersburg · Kemp Mill · Kensington · Olney · Potomac · Rockville · Silver Spring · Takoma Park · Washington, D.C. · Wheaton · White Oak
Massachusetts
Brighton · Brookline · Lexington · Marblehead · Newton · Sharon · Wayland
Michigan
Ann Arbor · Detroit (Bloomfield Hills · Bloomfield Township · West Bloomfield · Farmington Hills · Huntington Woods · Oak Park · Southfield)
Minnesota
Minneapolis (St. Louis Park · Minnetonka) · St. Paul
Missouri
St. Louis (University City · Clayton · Ladue)
New Jersey[8]
Cherry Hill · East Brunswick · Edison · Elizabeth · Englewood · Fair Lawn · Highland Park · Lakewood · Livingston · Manalapan Township · Marlboro Township · Millburn · Morristown · Newark · South Orange · West Orange · Passaic · Springfield · Teaneck · Tenafly · Wayne · Woodcliff Lake · Englewood Cliffs · Paramus · Fort Lee
New York
Long Island[8] Baldwin · Bellmore · Dix Hills · East Hampton · "Five Towns" · Great Neck · Huntington · Jericho · Merrick · Oceanside · Old Bethpage · Plainview · Roslyn · Port Washington · Syosset
New York City[8] Brooklyn Bensonhurst · Borough Park · Brighton Beach · Brooklyn Heights · Coney Island · Crown Heights · Dyker Heights · Midwood · Prospect-Lefferts Gardens · Prospect Heights · Sheepshead Bay · Williamsburg
Bronx Castle Hill · City Island · Co-op City · Norwood · Pelham Gardens · Pelham Parkway · Riverdale · Van Cortlandt Park · Woodlawn
Queens Forest Hills · Kew Gardens · Little Neck · Fresh Meadows · Rego Park
Manhattan Lower East Side · Inwood · Midtown · Upper West Side, Manhattan
Staten Island Willowbrook · New Springville
Orange County Kiryas Joel
Rockland County Kaser · Monsey · Montebello · New City · New Square · Spring Valley · Suffern · Viola · Wesley Hills
Westchester County[8] Chappaqua · Harrison · Hartsdale · Larchmont · Mamaroneck · New Rochelle · Rye · Scarsdale · White Plains
North Carolina
Cary · Charlotte · Greensboro · Raleigh
Ohio
Cincinnati Amberley · Blue Ash · Reading
Cleveland Beachwood · Cleveland Heights · Lyndhurst · Moreland Hills · Orange · Pepper Pike · Shaker Heights · Solon · South Euclid · University Heights
Columbus Bexley
Pennsylvania
Philadelphia Cheltenham Township (Elkins Park) · Overbrook · Lower Merion Township (Bala Cynwyd · Gladwyne · Merion · Wynnewood) · Narberth · Oxford Circle · Rhawnhurst · Richboro · Spring House · Upper Dublin Township (Abington Township · Dresher · Fort Washington) · West Chester
Pittsburgh Squirrel Hill
Texas
Dallas North Dallas (Preston Hollow, Devonshire, Melshire Estates, Bluff View, Greenway Parks, Turtle Creek, Bent Tree, Far North Dallas) · Plano
Houston Meyerland · Memorial · Maplewood · Braeburn · Inwood Forest · Addicks · Cypress · Jersey Village · Piney Point Village · Bunker Hill Village · Hedwig Village · Hilshire Village · Hunters Creek Village · West University Place · Sugar Land
Virginia
Alexandria · Fairfax · Falls Church
Washington
Bellevue · Mercer Island · Seattle
Wisconsin
Bayside · Glendale · Fox Point · Mequon · Whitefish Bay (All in metro Milwaukee)

NotaSunting

  1. ^ See PR Newswire at [1]
  2. ^ NJPS 2000-01 Report[2]
  3. ^ PR Newswire [3]
  4. ^ Jewish Virtual Library[4]
  5. ^ Manhattan
  6. ^ Brooklyn
  7. ^ Staten Island
  8. ^ a b c d New Jersey, New York City, Long Island and Westchester County each have large Jewish communities, but the areas listed within and without have the highest concentrations.

BibliografiSunting

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  • Cutler, Irving. The Jews of Chicago: From Shtetl to Suburb. 1995
  • Diner, Hasia. The Jews of the United States, 1654 to 2000 (2004) online
  • Dinnerstein, Leonard. Antisemitism in America. 1994.
  • Dollinger, Marc. Quest for Inclusion: Jews and Liberalism in Modern America. 2000.
  • Eisen, Arnold M. The Chosen People in America: A Study in Jewish Religious Ideology. 1983.
  • Glazer, Nathan. American Judaism. 2nd ed., 1989.
  • Goren, Arthur. The Politics and Public Culture of American Jews. 1999.
  • Gurock, Jeffrey S. From Fluidity to Rigidity: The Religious Worlds of Conservative and Orthodox Jews in Twentieth Century America. Jean and Samuel Frankel Center for Judaic Studies, 1998.
  • Hyman, Paula, and Deborah Dash Moore, eds. Jewish Women in America: An Historical Encyclopedia. 1997
  • Lederhendler, Eli. New York Jews and the Decline of Urban Ethnicity, 1950–1970. 2001
  • Moore, Deborah Dash. To the Golden Cities: Pursuing the American Jewish Dream in Miami and L. A. 1994
  • Moore, Deborah Dash. GI Jews: How World War II Changed a Generation (2006)
  • Novick, Peter. The Holocaust in American Life. 1999.
  • Raphael, Marc Lee. Judaism in America. Columbia U. Press, 2003. 234 pp.
  • Sarna, Jonathan D. American Judaism Yale University Press, 2004. ISBN 0-300-10197-X 512pp
  • Shapiro, Edward S. A Time for Healing: American Jewry since World War II. Jewish People in America, vol. 5. 1992.
  • Sorin, Gerald. Tradition Transformed: The Jewish Experience in America. 1997.
  • Staub, Michael E. ed. The Jewish 1960s: An American Sourcebook University Press of New England, 2004; 371 pp. ISBN 1-58465-417-1 online review
  • Svonkin, Stuart. Jews against Prejudice: American Jews and the Fight for Civil Liberties. 1997
  • Waxman, Chaim I. "What We Don't Know about the Judaism of America's Jews." Contemporary Jewry (2002) 23: 72-95. Issn: 0147-1694 Uses survey data to map the religious beliefs of American Jews, 1973-2002.
  • Wertheimer, Jack, ed. The American Synagogue: A Sanctuary Transformed. 1987.
  • Whitfield, Stephen J. In Search of American Jewish Culture. 1999

RujukanSunting