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John Joseph "Black Jack" Pershing (13 September 1860 – 15 Julai 1948) merupakan seorang Jeneral tersohor dalam Tentera Darat Amerika Syarikat yang memimpin kemenangan Angkatan Ekspedisi Amerika ke atas Jerman dalam Perang Dunia I (1917–18). Beliau menolak permintaan negara British dan Perancis yang mahu tentera Amerika di sepadukan dengan ketumbukan mereka, dan berkeras mahukan AEF beroperasi sebagai sebuah unit tunggal dibawah pemerintahannya, namun beberapa divisyen Amerika berjuang dibawah pemerintahan British, dan beliau juga membenarkan kesemua unit orang kulit hitam disepadukan dengan tentera darat Perancis. Tentera AS mula-mula bertempur sengit di Cantigny, Chateau-Thierry, Belleau Wood, dan Soissons. Bagi mempercepatkan ketibaan askar-askar Amerika, mereka menaiki kapal ke Perancis dengan meninggalkan kelengkapan berat dan menggunakan kereta kebal British dan Perancis, artileri, kapal terbang dan senjata lain. Pada September 1918 di St. Mihiel, Tentera Darat Pertama telah berada dibawah pemerintahan Pershing; ia mengalahkan unjuran Jerman yang mana mereka telah kuasai selama tiga tahun. Pershing mengalihkan 600,000 askar Amerika ke kawasan pertahanan kukuh hutan Argonne, mengekalkan divisyennya yang bertempur hebat selama 47 hari, bersama dengan Perancis. Kemenangan tersebut adalah salah satu faktor yang menyebabkan pihak Jerman ingin mengadakan gencatan senjata, walaupun Pershing sendiri mahu meneruskan peperangan, menduduki seluruh Jerman dan memusnahkan tentera Jerman buat selama-lamanya.

John J. Pershing
General John Joseph Pershing head on shoulders.jpg
Nama lahirJohn Joseph Pershing
Nama samaran"Black Jack"
Kelahiran(1860-09-13)13 September 1860
Laclede, Missouri
Meninggal dunia15 Julai 1948(1948-07-15) (umur 87)
Walter Reed General Hospital
Washington, D.C.
DisemadikanTanah Perkuburan Kebangsaan Arlington
Kesetiaan Amerika Syarikat
PerkhidmatanWarOfficeSeal1.gif Tentera Darat Amerika Syarikat
Tahun perkhidmatan1886–1924
PangkatGeneral of Armies insignia.svg General of the Armies
Jumlah perkhidmatanO-1
ArahanBriged Ke-8 Infantri
Ekspedisi Mexico
Angkatan Ekspedisi Amerika
Tentera Darat Pertama Amerika
Ketua Turus Tentera Darat Amerika Syarikat
PertempuranPeperangan Indian Amerika

Perang Sepanyol–Amerika

Perang Filipina-Amerika

Perang Rusia-Jepun
Revolusi Mexico

Perang Dunia I

AnugerahDistinguished Service Cross
Distinguished Service Medal
Silver Star
Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath Kehormat (United Kingdom)
Légion d'honneur (Perancis)
TandatanganJohn J Pershing Signature.svg

Pershing merupakan satu-satunya askar Amerika yang diberi kenaikkan pangkat ke General of the Armies.[1] Beliau berkhidmat sebagai mentor kepada generasi para jeneral yang memimpin Tentera Darat Amerika Syarikat di Eropah semasa Perang Dunia II, seperti George Marshall, Dwight D. Eisenhower, Omar Bradley, dan George S. Patton. Beberapa taktik beliau telah dikritik oleh komander lain pada masa itu dan oleh sejarawan moden. Pergantungan beliau terhadap serangan berhadap yang merugikan itu, yang mana tentera Bersekutu yang lain sudah lama tidak menggunakan taktik tersebut, telah dipersalahkan kerana menyebabkan Amerika mengalami mangsa korban yang terlalu tinggi.[2]

Ringkasan kerjayaSunting

Tarikh pangkatSunting

Tiada Insignia Kadet, Akademi Tentera Amerika Syarikat: 1 Julai 1882
Tiada Insignia pada 1886 Leftenan Muda, Tentera Darat Amerika Syarikat: 1 Julai 1886
Leftenan, Tentera Darat Amerika Syarikat: 20 Oktober 1892
Mejar sukarelawan, Tentera Darat A.S.: 18 Ogos 1898 – 30 Jun 1901
Kapten, U.S. Army (reverted to permanent rank July 1, 1901): February 2, 1901
Brigedier Jeneral, United States Army: September 20, 1906
Mejar Jeneral, United States Army: September 25, 1916
Jeneral, National Army, Army of the United States: October 6, 1917
General of the Armies, Tentera Darat Amerika Syarikat: 3 September 1919

As there was no prescribed insignia for this rank, General Pershing chose the four stars of a full general, except in gold. According to the biography Until the Last Trumpet Sounds by Gene Smith, Pershing never wore the rank on his uniform.

Sejarah tugasSunting

 
Jeneral Pershing mendarat di Perancis pada tahun 1917
  • 1882: Cadet, United States Military Academy
  • 1886: Troop L, Sixth Cavalry
  • 1891: Professor of Tactics, University of Nebraska-Lincoln
  • 1895: 1st Lieutenant, 10th Cavalry Regiment
  • 1897: Instructor, United States Military Academy, West Point
  • 1898: Major of Volunteer Forces, Cuban Campaign, Spanish–American War
  • 1899: Officer-in-Charge, Office of Customs and Insular Affairs
  • 1900: Adjutant General, Department of Mindanao and Jolo, Philippines
  • 1901: Battalion Officer, 1st Cavalry and Intelligence Officer, 15th Cavalry (Philippines)
  • 1902: Officer-in-Charge, Camp Vicars, Philippines
  • 1904: Assistant Chief of Staff, Southwest Army Division, Oklahoma
  • 1905: Military attaché, U.S. Embassy, Tokyo, Japan
  • 1908: Military Advisor to American Embassy, France
  • 1909: Commander of Fort McKinley, Manila, and governor of Moro Province
  • 1914: Brigade Commander, 8th Army Brigade
  • 1916: Commanding General, Mexican Punitive Expedition
  • 1917: Commanding General for the formation of the National Army
  • 1917: Commanding General, American Expeditionary Forces, Europe
  • 1921: Chief of Staff of the United States Army
  • 1924: Retired from active military service
  • 1925: Chief Commissioner assigned by the United States in the arbitration case for the provinces of Tacna and Arica between Peru and Chile.

Anugerah kebesaranSunting

 
Riben pingat Pershing yang dipakai semasa Perang Dunia I

Darjah dan pingat AmerikaSunting

Note: The dates indicated are the date the award was made rather that they date of the service which was recognized.

 
Riben pingat Jeneral Pershing yang terkini

In 1932, seven years after Pershing's retirement from active service, his silver citation star was upgraded to the Silver Star decoration and he became eligible for the Purple Heart.

In 1941 he was awarded the Distinguished Service Cross for extraordinary heroism in action leading an against hostile Moros at Mount Bagsak, on the island of Jolo in the Philippines on June 15, 1913.[3]

In 1941, he was retroactively awarded the Army of Occupation of Germany Medal for service in Germany following the close of World War I. As the Army of Occupation of Germany Medal has a profile of Pershing on its obverse this made Pershing the only soldier in the history of the U.S. Army eligible to wear a service medal with his own likeness on it. (Navy admirals George Dewey, William T. Sampson and Richard E. Byrd were also entitled to wear medals with their own image on them.)

Anugerah antarabangsaSunting

 
Tandatangan John Pershing selaku General of the Armies

Anugerah awamSunting

Lihat jugaSunting

RujukanSunting

  1. ^ A retroactive Congressional edict passed in 1976 promoted George Washington to the same rank but with higher seniority.
  2. ^ Sheffield, G. (2001). Forgotten Victory: The First World War: Myths and Realities (2002 ed.). London: Headline Book Publishing. ISBN 0-7472-7157-7
  3. ^ American Decoration. Supplement V. July 1, 1940 – June 30, 1941. Government Printing Office. Washington. 1941.

Bibliografi

  • Boot, Max. The Savage Wars of Peace New York, Basic Books, 2002. ISBN 0-465-00720-1
  • Vandiver, Frank E. Black Jack: The Life and Times of John J. Pershing – Volume I (Texas A&M University Press, Third printing, 1977) ISBN 0-89096-024-0
  • Vandiver, Frank E. Black Jack: The Life and Times of John J. Pershing – Volume II (Texas A&M University Press, Third printing, 1977) ISBN 0-89096-024-0
  • Templat:ACMH

Bacaan lanjut

  • Goldhurst, Richard. Pipe Clay and Drill: John J. Pershing, the classic American soldier, (Reader's Digest Press, 1977)
  • Smith, Gene. Until the Last Trumpet Sounds: The Life of General of the Armies John J. Pershing (Wiley, New York, 1998) ISBN 978-0-471-24693-0
  • Smythe, Donald. Guerrilla Warrior: The Early Life of John J. Pershing (Charles Scribner's Sons, New York, 1973) ISBN 0-684-12933-7
  • Smythe, Donald. Pershing: General of the Armies (Indiana University Press, Bloomington, 1986) ISBN 0-253-21924-8
  • Weigley, Russell Frank. History of the United States army (1967)
  • Woodward, David R. The American Army and the First World War (Cambridge University Press, 2014). 484 pp. online review
  • Yockelson, Mitchell A. (2008). Borrowed Soldiers: Americans under British Command, 1918. Foreword by John S. D. Eisenhower. University of Oklahoma Press. ISBN 978-0-8061-3919-7. 

Pautan luarSunting