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Bantuan:IPA untuk Afrikaan dan Belanda

The charts below show the way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents Dutch pronunciations in Wikipedia articles.

See Dutch phonology for a more thorough look at the sounds of Dutch as well as dialectal variations not represented here.

Consonants
IPA Examples English approximation
b beet bait
d dak duck
f fiets feats
ɣ gaan[a] without equivalent in English, roughly like loch (Scottish) but voiced
ɦ had[a] behind
j jas yard
k kat, cabaret school
l land land
m mens man
n nek[b] neck
ŋ eng long
p pen, rib[c] sport
r ras[d] trilled R or guttural R
s sok sock
t tak, had[c] stop
v ver[a] very
ʋ wang[e] between wine and vine
x acht,[a] weg[c] loch (Scottish English)
z zeep[a] zip
Marginal consonants
c tientje, check[f] cheer
ɡ goal[g] goal
ɟ Giovanni[f] jeep
ɲ oranje, Trijntje[f] somewhat like canyon
ʃ sjabloon, chef[h] shall
ʒ jury[a][h] vision
ʔ bindig [bəˈʔɛindəx],
Trijntje Oosterhuis
[-ə ˈʔoː-][i]
catch in uh-oh!
Stress
ˈ voorkomen
voorkomen[j]
as in commandeer
/ˌkɒmənˈdɪər/
ˌ
Other representations
ə(n) maken Optional /n/ in the /ən/ ending. Not pronounced in many dialects.[petikan diperlukan]
Vowels
IPA Examples English approximation
Checked vowels[k]
ɑ bad father, but rather short
ɛ bed bed
ɪ vis sit
ɔ bot off
ʏ hut roughly like nurse
Free vowels[k]
aap lad
beet, ezel[l] made
i diep deep
boot[l] roughly like born (British English)
y fuut roughly like goose (Australian/New Zealand)
øː neus[l] roughly like fur
u hoed boot
ɛi bijt, ei[m] roughly like may
œy buit[m] house (Scottish English)
ʌu jou, dauw[m] out
ɑi ai price
ɔi hoi choice
iu nieuw free will
yu duw few would
ui groei to eternity
aːi draai prize
eːu sneeuw say oo
oːi nooit boys
ə hemel again
Marginal vowels
ɔː roze[n][o] dog
ɛː scène[p] square (British English)
œː freule[n] roughly like fur
analyse[n] wheeze
centrifuge[n] roughly like fugue
ɑ̃ː genre[n] roughly like croissant
ɛ̃ː hautain[n] roughly like doyen
ɔ̃ː chanson[n] roughly like montage
  1. ^ a b Gussenhoven (1999:74)
  2. ^ a b c d e Collins & Mees (2003:48)
  3. ^ Gussenhoven (1999:76)
  4. ^ Collins & Mees (2003:133–134)
  5. ^ Collins & Mees (2003:135)
  6. ^ Rietveld & Van Heuven (2009:70). Authors state that "in most northern areas, /œy/ is pronounced [ʌ̈y̯]."
  7. ^ Collins & Mees (2003:135–136)
  8. ^ Verhoeven (2005:245)
  9. ^ a b Collins & Mees (2003:136)


Ralat petik: Tag <ref> untuk kumpulan "lower-alpha" ada tetapi tag <references group="lower-alpha"/> yang sepadan tidak disertakan