Senat Amerika Syarikat

Senat Amerika Syarikat merupakan salah satu daripada dua dewan perundangan Kongres Amerika Syarikat, satu lagi menjadi Dewan Perwakilan. Dalam Senat, setiap negeri secara saksama diwakili oleh dua ahli; hasilnya, jumlah keahlian badan berkenaan hingga kini ialah 100. Para Senator berkhidmat tempoh selama enam tahun diatur supaya pilihan-pilihan raya diadakan bagi kira-kira sepertiga kerusi daripada kerusi-kerusi dewan (satu "kumpulan") setiap tahun kedua. Naib Presiden Amerika Syarikat merupakan Presiden Senat dan berkhidmat sebagai pegawai yang mengetuai, tetapi ia bukan seorang senator dan tidak boleh mengundi kecuali pemecah undi. Timbalan Presiden jarang bertindak sebagai Presiden Senat kecuali membuang undi pemecah atau semasa majlis upacara atau istiadat, maka tanggungjawab mempengerusikan biasanya jatuh kepada Presiden Pro Tempore, secara adat merupakan senator yang paling senior daripada parti majoriti. Paling biasa, Presiden Pro Tempore akan merangka satu ahli daripada parti beliau untuk berkhidmat sebagai pegawai pengerusi pada hari tersebut.

Senat Amerika Syarikat
Jata
Jata Dewan Senat Amerika Syarikat
Flag of the United States Senate
Bendera Senat Amerika Syarikat
Kongres Amerika Syarikat ke-116
Jenis
Jenis
Tempoh menjawat
Tiada
Sesi baru bermula
3 Januari 2019 (2019-01-03)
Mike Pence (R)
sejak 20 Januari 2017
Hari pemasyhuran Presiden Amerika Syarikat, Donald Trump
Chuck Grassley (R)
sejak 3 Januari 2019
Patrick Leahy (D)
sejak 3 Januari 2015
Pemimpin majoriti Senat Amerika Syarikat
Mitch McConnell (R)
sejak 3 Januari 2015
Pemimpin minoriti Senat Amerika Syarikat
Chuck Schumer (D)
sejak 3 Januari 2017
Majoriti whip Senat Amerika Syarikat
John Thune (R)
sejak 3 Januari 2019
Struktur
Ahli100
51 (atau 50 tambah Naib Presiden Amerika Syarikat) untuk mencapai majoriti mudah
{{{Struktur1}}}
Kumpulan politik
Majoriti (53)

Minoriti (47)

Tempoh penggal
6 tahun
Pilihan raya
Sistem pengundian
Pilihan raya terakhir
6 November 2018 (35 kerusi)
Pilihan raya seterusnya
3 November 2020 (35 kerusi)
Tempat persidangan
United States Senate Floor.jpg
senate.gov
Perlembagaan
Perlembagaan Amerika Syarikat
sunting
Lihat pendokumenan templat ini
Cap Mohor Senat Amerika Syarikat

Komposisi dan kuasa Senat diwujudkan melalui artikel 1 di dalam Perlembagaan Amerika Syarikat. Dewan Senat terdiri daripada ahli senator, setiap satunya mewakili satu negeri secara keseluruhannya. Setiap negeri, tanpa mengira saiz penduduknya, adalah sama diwakili oleh dua Senator yang berkhidmat dalam tempoh enam tahun. Pada masa ini terdapat 50 negeri bersekutu, kini terdapat 100 Senator. Dari 1789 hingga 1913, Senator telah dilantik oleh badan perundangan Negeri yang mereka wakili; mereka kini dipilih oleh undi popular, berikutan penggubalan ratifikasi Amendmen 17 pindaan 1913.

Komposisi terkiniSunting

 
Komposisi Kongres Senat Amerika Syarikat ke-116
Blok Ahli
Republikan 53
Demokrat 45
Ahli politik bebas 2
Jumlah 100

KeahlianSunting

Angkat sumpahSunting

I, ___ ___, do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will support and defend the Constitution of the United States against all enemies, foreign and domestic; that I will bear true faith and allegiance to the same; that I take this obligation freely, without any mental reservation or purpose of evasion; and that I will well and faithfully discharge the duties of the office on which I am about to enter. So help me God.[1]

[2]

Pendapatan dan kelebihanSunting

Gaji tahunan setiap senator, sejak 2009, ialah USD $174,000; Presiden Pro tempore dan pemimpin parti menerima USD $193,400. Pada bulan Jun 2003, sekurang-kurangnya 40 Senator bergelar jutawan; pada tahun 2018, lebih 50 Senator bergelar jutawan. Bersama-sama dengan gaji pendapatan, seorang senator menerima manfaat persaraan dan kesihatan yang sama dengan penjawat awam yang lain, dan diberi hak sepenuhnya selepas lima tahun berkhidmat. Senator dilindungi oleh skim persaraan penjawat awam atau skim persaraan perkhidmatan awam. Skim pertama persaraan Senat sejak 1 Januari 1987, manakala skim kedua hanya terpakai bagi ahli-ahli Dewan Senat yang berkhidmat dari 31 Disember 1986 dan sebelumnya. Bagi penjawat awam, persaraan ahli kongres dibiayai melalui cukai dan sumbangan peserta. Di bawah skim persaraan pertama, senator perlu menyumbang 1.3% daripada gaji mereka ke dalam rancangan persaraan skim tersebut dan membayar 6.2% daripada gaji mereka dalam cukai keselamatan sosial. Jumlah pencen ahli senator bergantung kepada tempoh perkhidmatan dan purata tiga tahun yang tertinggi gaji mereka. Jumlah permulaan anuiti persaraan senator mungkin tidak melebihi 80% daripada gaji akhir mereka. Pada tahun 2006, purata pencen tahunan bagi senator dan wakil yang telah bersara di bawah skim kedua adalah USD $60,972, manakala mereka yang bersara di bawah skim pertama, atau gabungan dengan skim kedua, berjumlah USD $35,952

Senarai ahli senat Amerika SyarikatSunting

Pemimpin tertinggiSunting

Jawatan Parti Penyandang Negeri Sejak
Presiden Senat[b] Republikan   Mike Pence Indiana[c] 20 Januari 2017
Presiden pro tempore Senat Republikan   Chuck Grassley Senator Iowa 3 Januari 2019

Pemimpin majoritiSunting

Jawatan Penyandang Negeri Sejak
Pemimpin parti Dewan Senat Mitch McConnell Senator Kentucky 3 Januari 2015
Pemimpin parti sejak 3 Januari 2007
Pemimpin Whip Dewan Senat John Thune Senator South Dakota 3 Januari 2019
Pengerusi Persidangan Dewan Senat John Barrasso Senator Wyoming 3 Januari 2019
Pengerusi Jawatankuasa Polisi Dewan Senat Roy Blunt Senator Missouri 3 Januari 2019
Naib Pengerusi Persidangan Dewan Senat Joni Ernst Senator Iowa 3 Januari 2019
Pengerusi Jawatankuasa Senator Republikan Kebangsaan (National Republican Senatorial) Todd Young Senator Indiana 3 Januari 2019
Pengerusi Jawatankuasa Bertindak Dewan Senat Mike Lee Senator Utah 3 Januari 2015
Timbalan Ketua Whip Dewan Senat Mike Crapo Senator Idaho 3 Januari 2013

Pemimpin minoritiSunting

Jawatan Penyandang Negeri Sejak
Pemimpin parti Dewan Senat Chuck Schumer Senator New York 3 Januari 2017
Party Leader since January 3, 2017
Pemimpin Whip Dewan Senat Dick Durbin Senator Illinois 3 Januari 2015
Party Whip since January 3, 2005
Pembantu pemimpin parti Dewan Senat Patty Murray Senator Washington 3 Januari 2017
Pengerusi Jawatankuasa Polisi Dewan Senat Debbie Stabenow Senator Michigan 3 Januari 2017
Naib Pengerusi Kaukus Demokrat Mark Warner Senator Virginia 3 Januari 2017
Elizabeth Warren Senator Massachusetts 3 Januari 2017
Pengerusi Jawatankuasa Bertindak Dewan Senat Amy Klobuchar Senator Minnesota 3 Januari 2017
Pengerusi Jawatankuasa Bertindak dan Jangkauan Dewan Senat Bernie Sanders Senator Vermont 3 Januari 2017
Naib Pengerusi Jawatankuasa Polisi Dewan Senat Joe Manchin Senator West Virginia 3 Januari 2017
Setiausaha Kaukus Demokrat Dewan Senat Tammy Baldwin Senator Wisconsin 3 Januari 2017
Pengerusi Jawatankuasa Kempen Dewan Senat Demokrat Catherine Cortez Masto Senator Nevada 3 Januari 2019
Timbalan Ketua Whip Jeff Merkley Senator Oregon 3 Januari 2017
Presiden pro tempore emeritus Patrick Leahy Senator Vermont 3 Januari 2015
Dekan parti sejak 17 Disember 2012

Senarai senatorSunting

Negeri Potret Senator Parti Lahir Pekerjaan Jawatan sebelum senator Tarikh menjawat Penggal tamat Kediaman
Alabama   Shelby, RichardRichard Shelby Republikan (1934-05-06) 6 Mei 1934 (umur 86) Peguam Dewan Perwakilan AS
Alabama
3 Januari 1987 2022 Tuscaloosa[3]
  Jones, DougDoug Jones[d] Demokrat (1954-05-04) 4 Mei 1954 (umur 66) Peguam Jawatankuasa Judisari Dewan Senat
Peguam Daerah Utara Alabama
3 Januari 2018 2020 Birmingham
Alaska   Murkowski, LisaLisa Murkowski Republikan (1957-05-22) 22 Mei 1957 (umur 63) Lawyer Dewan Perwakilan AS negeri Alaska 20 Disember 2002 2022 Anchorage[5]
  Sullivan, DanDan Sullivan Republican (1964-11-13) 13 November 1964 (umur 55) U.S. Marine Corps officer
Lawyer
Peguam Negeri Alaska
Pembantu Setiausaha Perhubungan Perniagaan dan Ekonomi Negeri
3 Januari 2015 2020 Anchorage
Arizona   Sinema, KyrstenKyrsten Sinema Democratic (1976-07-12) 12 Julai 1976 (umur 44) Social Worker
Political Activist
U.S. House
Arizona Senate
Arizona House of Representatives
January 3, 2019 2024 Phoenix[6]
  McSally, MarthaMartha McSally[e] Republican (1966-03-22) 22 Mac 1966 (umur 54) U.S. Air Force officer
Professor, George C. Marshall European Center for Security Studies[8]
U.S. House January 3, 2019 2020 (Special)
2022 (General)
Tucson[9]
Arkansas   Boozman, JohnJohn Boozman Republican (1950-12-10) 10 Disember 1950 (umur 69) Optometrist U.S. House
Rogers Public Schools Board
January 3, 2011 2022 Rogers[10]
  Cotton, TomTom Cotton Republican (1977-05-13) 13 Mei 1977 (umur 43) Lawyer
United States Army officer
U.S. House January 3, 2015 2020 Dardanelle[10]
California   Feinstein, DianneDianne Feinstein Democratic (1933-06-22) 22 Jun 1933 (umur 87) Non-profit organization fellow Mayor of San Francisco
San Francisco Board of Supervisors
Member, California Women's Parole Board.
November 10, 1992 2024 San Francisco[11]
  Harris, KamalaKamala Harris Democratic (1964-10-20) 20 Oktober 1964 (umur 55) Lawyer Attorney General of California
San Francisco District Attorney
January 3, 2017 2022 Los Angeles[11]
Colorado   Bennet, MichaelMichael Bennet Democratic (1964-11-28) 28 November 1964 (umur 55) Lawyer
Investment company executive
Public School Administrator
Denver Public Schools Superintendent
Chief of staff to the mayor of Denver
January 22, 2009 2022 Denver[12]
  Gardner, CoryCory Gardner Republican (1974-08-22) 22 Ogos 1974 (umur 45) Lawyer
Businessman
U.S. House
Colorado House of Representatives
January 3, 2015 2020 Denver[12]
Connecticut   Blumenthal, RichardRichard Blumenthal Democratic (1946-02-13) 13 Februari 1946 (umur 74) Marine Corps Reserve Sergeant
Senate Staffer
Lawyer
Connecticut Attorney General
Connecticut Senate
Connecticut House of Representatives
United States Attorney
January 3, 2011 2022 Greenwich[13]
  Murphy, ChrisChris Murphy Democratic (1973-08-03) 3 Ogos 1973 (umur 46) Lawyer
Political Campaign Manager
U.S. House
Connecticut Senate
Connecticut House of Representatives
January 3, 2013 2024 Cheshire[13]
Delaware   Carper, TomTom Carper Democratic (1947-01-23) 23 Januari 1947 (umur 73) U.S. Navy officer
Staff, Delaware Office of Economic Development
Governor of Delaware
U.S. House
Delaware Treasurer
January 3, 2001 2024 Wilmington[14]
  Coons, ChrisChris Coons Democratic (1963-09-09) 9 September 1963 (umur 56) Nonprofit Organization executive
Lawyer
New Castle County, Delaware County Executive
Member, New Castle County Council
November 15, 2010 2020 Wilmington[14]
Florida   Rubio, MarcoMarco Rubio Republican (1971-05-28) 28 Mei 1971 (umur 49) Lawyer Florida House Speaker
West Miami, Florida City Commission
January 3, 2011 2022 Miami
  Scott, RickRick Scott Republican (1952-12-01) 1 Disember 1952 (umur 67) Petty officer third class, U.S. Navy
Lawyer
Columbia/HCA CEO
Venture Capitalist
Governor of Florida January 8, 2019 2024 Naples[15]
Georgia   Perdue, DavidDavid Perdue Republican (1949-12-10) 10 Disember 1949 (umur 70) Corporate executive None January 3, 2015 2020 Sea Island[16]
  Loeffler, KellyKelly Loeffler Republican (1970-11-27) 27 November 1970 (umur 49) Corporate executive None January 6, 2020 2020 (Special)
2022 (General)
Atlanta
Hawaii   Schatz, BrianBrian Schatz Democratic (1972-10-20) 20 Oktober 1972 (umur 47) Nonprofit organization executive Lieutenant Governor of Hawaii
Hawaii House of Representatives
December 26, 2012 2022 Honolulu[17]
  Hirono, MazieMazie Hirono Democratic (1947-11-03) 3 November 1947 (umur 72) Lawyer U.S. House
Hawaii House of Representatives
Lieutenant Governor of Hawaii
January 3, 2013 2024 Honolulu[17]
Idaho   Crapo, MikeMike Crapo Republican (1951-05-20) 20 Mei 1951 (umur 69) Lawyer U.S. House
Idaho Senate
January 3, 1999 2022 Idaho Falls[18]
  Risch, JimJim Risch Republican (1943-05-03) 3 Mei 1943 (umur 77) Professor
Rancher
Nonprofit organization executive
Governor of Idaho
Lieutenant Governor of Idaho
Idaho Senate President pro tempore
January 3, 2009 2020 Boise[18]
Illinois   Durbin, DickDick Durbin Democratic (1944-11-21) 21 November 1944 (umur 75) Lawyer
Professor
U.S. House January 3, 1997 2020 Springfield[19]
  Duckworth, TammyTammy Duckworth Democratic (1968-03-12) 12 Mac 1968 (umur 52) Army National Guard Officer
Staff Supervisor, Rotary International
Coordinator, Center for Nursing Research, Northern Illinois University.[20]
U.S. House
U.S. Assistant Secretary of Veterans Affairs
Illinois Director of Veterans Affairs
January 3, 2017 2022 Hoffman Estates[19]
Indiana   Young, ToddTodd Young Republican (1972-08-24) 24 Ogos 1972 (umur 47) Marine Corps Officer
Professor
Consultant
U.S. House January 3, 2017 2022 Bloomington
  Braun, MikeMike Braun Republican (1954-03-24) 24 Mac 1954 (umur 66) Businessman Indiana House of Representatives
Member, Jasper, Indiana School Board
January 3, 2019 2024 Jasper[21]
Iowa   Grassley, ChuckChuck Grassley Republican (1933-09-17) 17 September 1933 (umur 86) Farmer
College professor
U.S. House
Iowa House of Representatives
January 3, 1981 2022 New Hartford[22]
  Ernst, JoniJoni Ernst Republican (1970-07-01) 1 Julai 1970 (umur 50) Farmer
Army National Guard officer
Iowa Senate January 3, 2015 2020 Red Oak[22]
Kansas   Roberts, PatPat Roberts Republican (1936-04-20) 20 April 1936 (umur 84) United States Marine Corps officer
Journalist
U.S. Senate staff member
U.S. House staff member
U.S. House January 3, 1997 2020 Dodge City[23]
  Moran, JerryJerry Moran Republican (1954-05-29) 29 Mei 1954 (umur 66) Banker
Lawyer
U.S. House
Kansas Senate
January 3, 2011 2022 Hays[23]
Kentucky   McConnell, MitchMitch McConnell Republican (1942-02-20) 20 Februari 1942 (umur 78) Lawyer
U.S. Senate staff member
U.S. Department of Justice Office of Legislative Affairs
Jefferson County Judge/Executive
January 3, 1985 2020 Louisville[24]
  Paul, RandRand Paul Republican (1963-01-07) 7 Januari 1963 (umur 57) Ophthalmologist None January 3, 2011 2022 Bowling Green[24]
Louisiana   Cassidy, BillBill Cassidy Republican (1957-09-28) 28 September 1957 (umur 62) Physician U.S. House
Louisiana Senate
January 3, 2015 2020 Baton Rouge[25]
  Kennedy, JohnJohn Kennedy Republican (1951-11-21) 21 November 1951 (umur 68) Magazine editor
Lawyer
Professor
Staff of Louisiana Governor Buddy Roemer
Louisiana Treasurer
Secretary, Louisiana Department of Revenue
January 3, 2017 2022 Madisonville[25]
Maine   Collins, SusanSusan Collins Republican (1952-12-07) 7 Disember 1952 (umur 67) House staffer
Senate staffer
Regional director, SBA
Nonprofit organization executive
Deputy Treasurer, MA

Professional and Financial Regulation Commissioner, ME

January 3, 1997 2020 Bangor[26]
  King, AngusAngus King Independent[f] (1944-03-31) 31 Mac 1944 (umur 76) Lawyer
Senate staffer
Business founder
Corporate executive
Public television news program host
Governor of Maine January 3, 2013 2024 Brunswick
Maryland   Cardin, BenBen Cardin Democratic (1943-10-05) 5 Oktober 1943 (umur 76) Lawyer U.S. House
Speaker of the Maryland House of Delegates
January 3, 2007 2024 Baltimore[27]
  Van Hollen, ChrisChris Van Hollen Democratic (1959-01-10) 10 Januari 1959 (umur 61) U.S. Senate staff member
Maryland Governor's legislative advisor
Lawyer
U.S. House
Maryland General Assembly
January 3, 2017 2022 Kensington[27]
Massachusetts   Warren, ElizabethElizabeth Warren Democratic (1949-06-22) 22 Jun 1949 (umur 71) Lawyer
Professor
Research associate
Nonprofit organization executive
COP Chair
CFPB Special Advisor
January 3, 2013 2024 Cambridge[28]
  Markey, EdEd Markey Democratic (1946-07-11) 11 Julai 1946 (umur 74) Member, United States Army Reserve
Lawyer
U.S. House
Massachusetts House of Representatives
July 16, 2013 2020 Malden[28]
Michigan   Stabenow, DebbieDebbie Stabenow Democratic (1950-04-29) 29 April 1950 (umur 70) Social worker
Leadership training consultant
U.S. House
Michigan House of Representatives
Michigan Senate
January 3, 2001 2024 Lansing[29]
  Peters, GaryGary Peters Democratic (1958-12-01) 1 Disember 1958 (umur 61) United States Navy Reserve officer
Financial advisor
Attorney
College professor and lecturer
U.S. House
Michigan Senate
January 3, 2015 2020 Bloomfield Hills[29]
Minnesota   Klobuchar, AmyAmy Klobuchar Democratic (1960-05-25) 25 Mei 1960 (umur 60) Lawyer Hennepin County, Minnesota Attorney January 3, 2007 2024 Minneapolis[30]
  Smith, TinaTina Smith Democratic (1958-03-04) 4 Mac 1958 (umur 62) Public relations consultant
Nonprofit organization executive
Chief of staff to the Governor of Minnesota
Lieutenant Governor of Minnesota January 3, 2018[g] 2020 Minneapolis[30]
Mississippi   Wicker, RogerRoger Wicker Republican (1951-07-05) 5 Julai 1951 (umur 69) U.S. Air Force officer/Judge Advocate
U.S. House staffer
Lawyer
U.S. House
Mississippi Senate
December 31, 2007 2024 Tupelo[32]
  Hyde-Smith, CindyCindy Hyde-Smith Republican (1959-05-10) 10 Mei 1959 (umur 61) Farmer Mississippi Commissioner of Agriculture and Commerce
Mississippi Senate
April 9, 2018[h] 2020 Brookhaven
Missouri   Blunt, RoyRoy Blunt Republican (1950-01-10) 10 Januari 1950 (umur 70) University president U.S. House
Missouri Secretary of State
Greene County, Missouri Clerk
January 3, 2011 2022 Springfield
  Hawley, JoshJosh Hawley Republican (1979-12-31) 31 Disember 1979 (umur 40) Lawyer
Professor
Attorney General of Missouri January 3, 2019 2024 Ashland[33][34]
Montana   Tester, JonJon Tester Democratic (1956-08-21) 21 Ogos 1956 (umur 63) Music teacher
Farmer
Montana Senate President
Big Sandy, Montana School Board
January 3, 2007 2024 Big Sandy
  Daines, SteveSteve Daines Republican (1962-08-20) 20 Ogos 1962 (umur 57) Businessman U.S. House January 3, 2015 2020 Bozeman
Nebraska   Fischer, DebDeb Fischer Republican (1951-03-01) 1 Mac 1951 (umur 69) Rancher Nebraska Legislature January 3, 2013 2024 Valentine
  Sasse, BenBen Sasse Republican (1972-02-22) 22 Februari 1972 (umur 48) Management consultant
Nonprofit organization executive
House staffer
Professor
University president
Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation (HHS) January 3, 2015 2020 Fremont
Nevada   Cortez Masto, CatherineCatherine Cortez Masto Democratic (1964-03-29) 29 Mac 1964 (umur 56) Lawyer Nevada Attorney General January 3, 2017 2022 Las Vegas
  Rosen, JackyJacky Rosen Democratic (1957-08-02) 2 Ogos 1957 (umur 62) Computer programmer
Software developer, designer, consultant[35][36]
U.S. House January 3, 2019 2024 Henderson[35]
New Hampshire   Shaheen, JeanneJeanne Shaheen Democratic (1947-01-28) 28 Januari 1947 (umur 73) Teacher
Entrepreneur
Governor of New Hampshire
New Hampshire Senate
January 3, 2009 2020 Madbury
  Hassan, MaggieMaggie Hassan Democratic (1958-02-27) 27 Februari 1958 (umur 62) Lawyer Governor of New Hampshire
New Hampshire Senate
January 3, 2017 2022 Newfields
New Jersey   Menendez, BobBob Menendez Democratic (1954-01-01) 1 Januari 1954 (umur 66) Lawyer U.S. House
New Jersey General Assembly
New Jersey Senate
January 18, 2006 2024 Hoboken
  Booker, CoryCory Booker Democratic (1969-04-27) 27 April 1969 (umur 51) Lawyer Mayor of Newark, New Jersey
Newark Municipal Council
October 31, 2013 2020 Newark
New Mexico   Udall, TomTom Udall Democratic (1948-05-18) 18 Mei 1948 (umur 72) Lawyer U.S. House
Attorney General of New Mexico
Assistant U.S. Attorney
January 3, 2009 2020 Santa Fe
  Heinrich, MartinMartin Heinrich Democratic (1971-10-17) 17 Oktober 1971 (umur 48) Nonprofit organization executive
Public relations consultant
U.S. House
Albuquerque City Council
January 3, 2013 2024 Albuquerque
New York   Schumer, ChuckChuck Schumer Democratic (1950-11-23) 23 November 1950 (umur 69) Lawyer U.S. House
New York State Assembly
January 3, 1999 2022 Brooklyn
  Gillibrand, KirstenKirsten Gillibrand Democratic (1966-12-09) 9 Disember 1966 (umur 53) Lawyer U.S. House
U.S. HUD special counsel
January 26, 2009 2024 Hudson
North Carolina   Burr, RichardRichard Burr Republican (1955-11-30) 30 November 1955 (umur 64) Sales manager
Nonprofit organization executive
U.S. House January 3, 2005 2022 Winston-Salem
  Tillis, ThomThom Tillis Republican (1960-08-30) 30 Ogos 1960 (umur 59) Business consultant Speaker of the North Carolina House of Representatives January 3, 2015 2020 Huntersville
North Dakota   Hoeven, JohnJohn Hoeven Republican (1957-03-13) 13 Mac 1957 (umur 63) Banker Governor of North Dakota January 3, 2011 2022 Bismarck
  Cramer, KevinKevin Cramer Republican (1961-01-21) 21 Januari 1961 (umur 59) State Tourism Director
State Economic Development and Finance Director
Former North Dakota Republican Party Chairman
U.S. House
North Dakota Public Service Commissioner
January 3, 2019 2024 Bismarck[37]
Ohio   Brown, SherrodSherrod Brown Democratic (1952-11-09) 9 November 1952 (umur 67) Teacher U.S. House
Ohio Secretary of State
Ohio House of Representatives
January 3, 2007 2024 Lorain
  Portman, RobRob Portman Republican (1955-12-19) 19 Disember 1955 (umur 64) Lawyer U.S. House
U.S. Trade Representative
Director of the Office of Management and Budget
January 3, 2011 2022 Terrace Park
Oklahoma   Inhofe, JimJim Inhofe Republican (1934-11-17) 17 November 1934 (umur 85) Specialist Fourth Class, U.S. Army
Businessman
Real estate developer
Corporate executive
U.S. House
Mayor of Tulsa, Oklahoma
Oklahoma Senate
Oklahoma House of Representatives
November 17, 1994 2020 Tulsa
  Lankford, JamesJames Lankford Republican (1968-03-04) 4 Mac 1968 (umur 52) Teacher
Nonprofit program director
U.S. House January 3, 2015 2022 Edmond
Oregon   Wyden, RonRon Wyden Democratic (1949-05-03) 3 Mei 1949 (umur 71) Teacher
Nonprofit organization executive
U.S. House February 6, 1996 2022 Portland
  Merkley, JeffJeff Merkley Democratic (1956-10-24) 24 Oktober 1956 (umur 63) Nonprofit organization executive
CBO analyst, Defense Department
Oregon House Speaker January 3, 2009 2020 Portland
Pennsylvania   Casey Jr., BobBob Casey Jr. Democratic (1960-04-13) 13 April 1960 (umur 60) Teacher
Lawyer
Pennsylvania Treasurer
Pennsylvania Auditor
January 3, 2007 2024 Scranton
  Toomey, PatPat Toomey Republican (1961-11-17) 17 November 1961 (umur 58) Currency trader
Restaurant owner
U.S. House January 3, 2011 2022 Zionsville
Rhode Island   Reed, JackJack Reed Democratic (1949-11-12) 12 November 1949 (umur 70) Lawyer
Army Reserve officer
Army officer
U.S. House
Rhode Island Senate
January 3, 1997 2020 Cranston
  Whitehouse, SheldonSheldon Whitehouse Democratic (1955-10-20) 20 Oktober 1955 (umur 64) Lawyer Attorney General of Rhode Island
United States Attorney
January 3, 2007 2024 Providence
South Carolina   Graham, LindseyLindsey Graham Republican (1955-07-09) 9 Julai 1955 (umur 65) Lawyer
Air Force Reserve officer
U.S. House
South Carolina House of Representatives
January 3, 2003 2020 Seneca
  Scott, TimTim Scott Republican (1965-09-19) 19 September 1965 (umur 54) Insurance agent
Financial adviser
U.S. House
South Carolina House of Representatives
Charleston County, South Carolina Council
January 2, 2013 2022 North Charleston
South Dakota   Thune, JohnJohn Thune Republican (1961-01-07) 7 Januari 1961 (umur 59) Nonprofit organization executive
State Railroad Director
U.S. House
South Dakota Republican Party Executive Director
January 3, 2005 2022 Sioux Falls
  Rounds, MikeMike Rounds Republican (1954-10-24) 24 Oktober 1954 (umur 65) Businessman Governor of South Dakota
South Dakota Senate
January 3, 2015 2020 Fort Pierre
Tennessee   Alexander, LamarLamar Alexander Republican (1940-07-03) 3 Julai 1940 (umur 80) Senate staffer
White House staffer
Lawyer
Businessman
Governor of Tennessee
U.S. Secretary of Education
January 3, 2003 2020 Maryville
  Blackburn, MarshaMarsha Blackburn Republican (1952-06-06) 6 Jun 1952 (umur 68) Marketing consultant
Executive Director of the Tennessee Film, Entertainment, and Music Commission
Former Williamson County, Tennessee Republican Party Chairwoman
U.S. House
Tennessee Senate
January 3, 2019 2024 Brentwood[38]
Texas   Cornyn, JohnJohn Cornyn Republican (1952-02-02) 2 Februari 1952 (umur 68) Lawyer San Antonio District Judge
Texas Attorney General
Texas Supreme Court
(Associate Justice)
December 1, 2002 2020 San Antonio
  Cruz, TedTed Cruz Republican (1970-12-22) 22 Disember 1970 (umur 49)
Lawyer

U.S. Assoc. Deputy AG
Texas Solicitor General
January 3, 2013 2024 Houston
Utah   Lee, MikeMike Lee Republican (1971-06-04) 4 Jun 1971 (umur 49) Lawyer
Governor's general counsel
Assistant United States Attorney January 3, 2011 2022 Alpine
  Romney, MittMitt Romney Republican (1947-03-12) 12 Mac 1947 (umur 73) Businessman Governor of Massachusetts January 3, 2019 2024 Holladay[39]
Vermont   Leahy, PatrickPatrick Leahy Democratic (1940-03-31) 31 Mac 1940 (umur 80) Lawyer Chittenden County, Vermont State's Attorney January 3, 1975 2022 Middlesex
  Sanders, BernieBernie Sanders Independent[f] (1941-09-08) 8 September 1941 (umur 78) Filmmaker
Writer
Political Activist
U.S. House
Mayor of Burlington, Vermont
January 3, 2007 2024 Burlington
Virginia   Warner, MarkMark Warner Democratic (1954-12-15) 15 Disember 1954 (umur 65) Businessman
Venture capitalist
Governor of Virginia
Virginia Democratic Party Chair
January 3, 2009 2020 Alexandria
  Kaine, TimTim Kaine Democratic (1958-02-26) 26 Februari 1958 (umur 62) Missionary
Lawyer
Teacher
Governor of Virginia
Lt. Governor of Virginia
Chair of the Democratic National Committee
Mayor of Richmond, Virginia
January 3, 2013 2024 Richmond
Washington   Murray, PattyPatty Murray Democratic (1950-10-11) 11 Oktober 1950 (umur 69) Teacher
Lobbyist
Washington Senate
Shoreline School Board
January 3, 1993 2022 Seattle
  Cantwell, MariaMaria Cantwell Democratic (1958-10-13) 13 Oktober 1958 (umur 61) Marketing vice president U.S. House
Washington House of Representatives
January 3, 2001 2024 Edmonds
West Virginia   Manchin, JoeJoe Manchin Democratic (1947-08-24) 24 Ogos 1947 (umur 72) Corporate executive Governor of West Virginia
Secretary of State of West Virginia
West Virginia House of Delegates
West Virginia Senate
November 15, 2010 2024 Charleston
  Capito, Shelley MooreShelley Moore Capito Republican (1953-11-26) 26 November 1953 (umur 66) College career counselor
Director, state Board of Regents educational information center
U.S. House
West Virginia House of Delegates
January 3, 2015 2020 Charleston
Wisconsin   Johnson, RonRon Johnson Republican (1955-04-08) 8 April 1955 (umur 65) Accountant
Corporate executive
None January 3, 2011 2022 Oshkosh
  Baldwin, TammyTammy Baldwin Democratic (1962-02-11) 11 Februari 1962 (umur 58) Lawyer U.S. House
Wisconsin Assembly
Dane County, Wisconsin Board of Supervisors
January 3, 2013 2024 Madison
Wyoming   Enzi, MikeMike Enzi Republican (1944-02-01) 1 Februari 1944 (umur 76) Nonprofit organization executive
Accountant
CEO
Member, Air National Guard
Wyoming House of Representatives
Wyoming Senate
January 3, 1997 2020 Gillette
  Barrasso, JohnJohn Barrasso Republican (1952-07-21) 21 Julai 1952 (umur 67) Orthopedic surgeon
Medical chief of staff
Nonprofit organization executive
Wyoming Senate June 25, 2007 2024 Casper

GaleriSunting

BibliografiSunting

  • Baker, Richard A. The Senate of the United States: A Bicentennial History Krieger, 1988.
  • Baker, Richard A., ed., First Among Equals: Outstanding Senate Leaders of the Twentieth Century Congressional Quarterly, 1991.
  • Barone, Michael, and Grant Ujifusa, The Almanac of American Politics 1976: The Senators, the Representatives and the Governors: Their Records and Election Results, Their States and Districts (1975); new edition every 2 years
  • David W. Brady and Mathew D. McCubbins. Party, Process, and Political Change in Congress: New Perspectives on the History of Congress (2002)
  • Caro, Robert A. The Years of Lyndon Johnson. Vol. 3: Master of the Senate. Knopf, 2002.
  • Comiskey, Michael. Seeking Justices: The Judging of Supreme Court Nominees U. Press of Kansas, 2004.
  • Congressional Quarterly Congress and the Nation XII: 2005–2008: Politics and Policy in the 109th and 110th Congresses (2010); massive, highly detailed summary of Congressional activity, as well as major executive and judicial decisions; based on Congressional Quarterly Weekly Report and the annual CQ almanac. The Congress and the Nation 2009–2012 vol XIII has been announced for September 2014 publication.
    • Congressional Quarterly Congress and the Nation: 2001–2004 (2005);
    • Congressional Quarterly, Congress and the Nation: 1997–2001 (2002)
    • Congressional Quarterly. Congress and the Nation: 1993–1996 (1998)
    • Congressional Quarterly, Congress and the Nation: 1989–1992 (1993)
    • Congressional Quarterly, Congress and the Nation: 1985–1988 (1989)
    • Congressional Quarterly, Congress and the Nation: 1981–1984 (1985)
    • Congressional Quarterly, Congress and the Nation: 1977–1980 (1981)
    • Congressional Quarterly, Congress and the Nation: 1973–1976 (1977)
    • Congressional Quarterly, Congress and the Nation: 1969–1972 (1973)
    • Congressional Quarterly, Congress and the Nation: 1965–1968 (1969)
    • Congressional Quarterly, Congress and the Nation: 1945–1964 (1965), the first of the series
  • Cooper, John Milton, Jr. Breaking the Heart of the World: Woodrow Wilson and the Fight for the League of Nations. Cambridge U. Press, 2001.
  • Davidson, Roger H., and Walter J. Oleszek, eds. (1998). Congress and Its Members, 6th ed. Washington DC: Congressional Quarterly. (Legislative procedure, informal practices, and member information)
  • Gould, Lewis L. The Most Exclusive Club: A History Of The Modern United States Senate (2005)
  • Hernon, Joseph Martin. Profiles in Character: Hubris and Heroism in the U.S. Senate, 1789–1990 Sharpe, 1997.
  • Hoebeke, C. H. The Road to Mass Democracy: Original Intent and the Seventeenth Amendment. Transaction Books, 1995. (Popular elections of senators)
  • Lee, Frances E. and Oppenheimer, Bruce I. Sizing Up the Senate: The Unequal Consequences of Equal Representation. U. of Chicago Press 1999. 304 pp.
  • MacNeil, Neil and Richard A. Baker. The American Senate: An Insider's History. Oxford University Press, 2013. 455 pp.
  • McFarland, Ernest W. The Ernest W. McFarland Papers: The United States Senate Years, 1940–1952. Prescott, Ariz.: Sharlot Hall Museum, 1995 (Democratic majority leader 1950–52)
  • Malsberger, John W. From Obstruction to Moderation: The Transformation of Senate Conservatism, 1938–1952. Susquehanna U. Press 2000
  • Mann, Robert. The Walls of Jericho: Lyndon Johnson, Hubert Humphrey, Richard Russell and the Struggle for Civil Rights. Harcourt Brace, 1996
  • Ritchie, Donald A. (1991). Press Gallery: Congress and the Washington Correspondents. Harvard University Press.
  • Ritchie, Donald A. (2001). The Congress of the United States: A Student Companion (ed. 2nd). Oxford University Press.
  • Ritchie, Donald A. (2010). The U.S. Congress: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford University Press.
  • Rothman, David. Politics and Power the United States Senate 1869–1901 (1966)
  • Swift, Elaine K. The Making of an American Senate: Reconstitutive Change in Congress, 1787–1841. U. of Michigan Press, 1996
  • Valeo, Frank. Mike Mansfield, Majority Leader: A Different Kind of Senate, 1961–1976 Sharpe, 1999 (Senate Democratic leader)
  • VanBeek, Stephen D. Post-Passage Politics: Bicameral Resolution in Congress. U. of Pittsburgh Press 1995
  • Weller, Cecil Edward, Jr. Joe T. Robinson: Always a Loyal Democrat. U. of Arkansas Press, 1998. (Arkansas Democrat who was Majority leader in 1930s)
  • Wilson, Woodrow. Congressional Government. New York: Houghton Mifflin, 1885; also 15th ed. 1900, repr. by photoreprint, Transaction books, 2002.
  • Wirls, Daniel and Wirls, Stephen. The Invention of the United States Senate Johns Hopkins U. Press, 2004. (Early history)
  • Zelizer, Julian E. On Capitol Hill : The Struggle to Reform Congress and its Consequences, 1948–2000 (2006)
  • Zelizer, Julian E., ed. The American Congress: The Building of Democracy (2004) (overview)

Sejarah rasmi senatSunting

The following are published by the Senate Historical Office.

  • Robert Byrd. The Senate, 1789–1989. Four volumes.
    • Vol. I, a chronological series of addresses on the history of the Senate
    • Vol. II, a topical series of addresses on various aspects of the Senate's operation and powers
    • Vol. III, Classic Speeches, 1830–1993
    • Vol. IV, Historical Statistics, 1789–1992
  • Dole, Bob. Historical Almanac of the United States Senate
  • Hatfield, Mark O., with the Senate Historical Office. Vice Presidents of the United States, 1789–1993 (essays reprinted online)
  • Frumin, Alan S. Riddick's Senate Procedure. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1992.

Pautan luarSunting


Ralat petik: Tag <ref> untuk kumpulan "lower-alpha" ada tetapi tag <references group="lower-alpha"/> yang sepadan tidak disertakan

  1. ^ See: 5 U.S.C. § 3331; see also: U.S. Senate Oath of Office
  2. ^ United States Constitution, Article VI
  3. ^ "States in the Senate – AL Introduction". Senate.gov. Dicapai pada January 3, 2019.
  4. ^ "Jones victorious in stunning Alabama Senate upset". AP News. Dicapai pada December 13, 2017.
  5. ^ "States in the Senate – AK Introduction". Senate.gov. Dicapai pada January 3, 2019.
  6. ^ "State Sen. Kyrsten Sinema pursues House seat". The Arizona State Press. Dicapai pada February 5, 2019.
  7. ^ Martin, Jonathan (December 18, 2018). "Martha McSally Appointed to Arizona Senate Seat Once Held by John McCain". The New York Times. Dicapai pada February 5, 2019.
  8. ^ McSally, Martha, "Should US uniform adapt to Muslim Culture?", The Washington Post, reprinted in The Japan Times, March 2, 2011, p. 12.
  9. ^ "Biography Martha McSally". Diarkib daripada yang asal pada Disember 24, 2018. Dicapai pada Januari 3, 2019.
  10. ^ a b "States in the Senate – AR Introduction". Senate.gov. Dicapai pada January 3, 2019.
  11. ^ a b "States in the Senate – CA Introduction". Senate.gov. Dicapai pada January 3, 2019.
  12. ^ a b "States in the Senate – CO Introduction". Senate.gov. Dicapai pada January 3, 2019.
  13. ^ a b "States in the Senate – CT Introduction". Senate.gov. Dicapai pada January 3, 2019.
  14. ^ a b "States in the Senate – DE Introduction". Senate.gov. Dicapai pada January 3, 2019.
  15. ^ "Meet Governor Scott". Flgov.com. Dicapai pada February 5, 2019.
  16. ^ "States in the Senate – GA Introduction". Senate.gov. Dicapai pada January 3, 2019.
  17. ^ a b "States in the Senate – HI Introduction". Senate.gov. Dicapai pada January 3, 2019.
  18. ^ a b "States in the Senate – ID Introduction". Senate.gov. Dicapai pada January 3, 2019.
  19. ^ a b "States in the Senate – IL Introduction". Senate.gov. Dicapai pada January 3, 2019.
  20. ^ Davey, Monica (November 28, 2008). "The New Team: Tammy Duckworth". The New York Times. New York, NY.
  21. ^ "About". Mike Braun for Indiana. Dicapai pada February 5, 2019.
  22. ^ a b "States in the Senate – IA Introduction". Senate.gov. Dicapai pada January 3, 2019.
  23. ^ a b "States in the Senate – KS Introduction". Senate.gov. Dicapai pada January 3, 2019.
  24. ^ a b "States in the Senate – KY Introduction". Senate.gov. Dicapai pada January 3, 2019.
  25. ^ a b "States in the Senate – LA Introduction". Senate.gov. Dicapai pada January 3, 2019.
  26. ^ "States in the Senate – ME Introduction". Senate.gov. Dicapai pada January 3, 2019.
  27. ^ a b "States in the Senate – MD Introduction". Senate.gov. Dicapai pada January 3, 2019.
  28. ^ a b "States in the Senate – MA Introduction". Senate.gov. Dicapai pada January 3, 2019.
  29. ^ a b "States in the Senate – MI Introduction". Senate.gov. Dicapai pada January 3, 2019.
  30. ^ a b "States in the Senate – MN Introduction". Senate.gov. Dicapai pada January 3, 2019.
  31. ^ "Franken to make announcement Thursday as chorus grows for his resignation". ABC7 Chicago. December 6, 2017. Dicapai pada December 9, 2017.
  32. ^ "States in the Senate – MS Introduction". Senate.gov. Dicapai pada January 3, 2019.
  33. ^ "Faculty Bio-Erin Morrow Hawley". University of Missouri Law School. Diarkib daripada yang asal pada March 2, 2019. Dicapai pada September 10, 2018.
  34. ^ "Josh Hawley (@HawleyMO) | Twitter". Twitter. Dicapai pada August 30, 2018.
  35. ^ a b "Congressional candidate Jacky Rosen a newcomer, unknown to most Southern Nevadans". Reviewjournal.com. July 5, 2016. Dicapai pada February 5, 2019.
  36. ^ "About Congresswoman Jacky Rosen". Diarkib daripada yang asal pada Disember 21, 2018. Dicapai pada Januari 3, 2019.
  37. ^ "RollCall.com – Member Profile – Sen. Kevin Cramer, R-N.D." Media.cq.com. Dicapai pada February 5, 2019.
  38. ^ "Biography Martha Blackburn". Diarkib daripada yang asal pada Disember 26, 2018. Dicapai pada Januari 3, 2019.
  39. ^ "About Mitt". Romney For Utah. Dicapai pada February 5, 2019.