Perjanjian Ottawa

Perjanjian Ottawa, atau nama penuhnya Konvensyen Larangan terhadap Penggunaan, Simpanan Stok, Pembuatan dan Pemindahan Periuk Api Pembinasa Anggota, dan Pemusnahannya (Bahasa Inggeris: Convention on the Prohibition of the Use, Stockpiling, Production and Transfer of Anti-Personnel Mines and on their Destruction), mengharamkan segala periuk api pembinasa anggota. Tepat pada Mei 2009, perjanjian ini disertai oleh 156 negara. Dua buah negara telah menandatanganinya tetapi belum meratifikasinya. 37 buah negara, termasuk Republik Rakyat China, Cuba, Mesir, Finland, India, Iran, Israel, Lubnan, Libya, Korea Utara, Pakistan, Rusia, Syria dan Amerika Syarikat, tidak menyertai Konvensyen ini. Pada tahun 2009, Rwanda menjadi negara pertama yang disahkan bebas periuk api.

Perjanjian Ottawa
(Mine Ban Treaty)
Convention on the Prohibition of the Use, Stockpiling, Production and Transfer of Anti-Personnel Mines and on their Destruction
Ditandatangani3 Disember 1997 di Ottawa, Kanada
Berkuat kuasa
1 Mac 1999
SyaratDimenterai oleh 40 negara
Penandatangan133
Pihak156 (Senarai lengkap)
Pemegang simpanan
Setiausaha Agung Pertubuhan Bangsa-Bangsa Bersatu
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  Negara-negara peserta Perjanjian Ottawa

PelaksanaanSunting

Selain menghentikan penghasilan dan pembangunan periuk api pembinasa anggota, sesebuah peserta perjanjian harus memusnahkan semua periuk api pembinasa anggota yang dimilikinya dalam masa empat tahun, kecuali sebilangan kecil periuk api yang dibenarkan penyimpanannya untuk tujuan latihan (pemugaran, pengesanan, dsb.) Dalam masa sepuluh tahun selepas menandatangani perjanjian ini, negara peserta sewajarnya memugarkan segala kawasannya yang ditanam periuk api. Memang susah untuk dilakukan bagi setiap negara, tetapi mereka boleh meminta bantuan ataupun lanjutan tempoh di mesyuarat tahunan.

Perjanjian ini hanya meliputi periuk api pembinasa anggota. Periuk api campuran, periuk api pembinasa kereta kebal, periuk api claymore kawalan jauh, peranti (jerangkap samar) dan peranti-peranti letupan "statik" pembinasa anggota yang lain tidak diliputi oleh perjanjian ini.

PesertaSunting

Negara yang memeterai/menyetujuiSunting

Negara Ditandatangani Dikuatkuasakan Cara
  Afghanistan Sep 11, 2002 Penyetujuan
  Afrika Selatan Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Jun 26, 1998 Ratifikasi
  Albania Sep 8, 1998 Feb 29, 2000 Ratifikasi
  Algeria Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Oct' is not a valid month Ratifikasi
  Andorra Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Jun 29, 1998 Ratifikasi
  Angola Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Jul 5, 2002 Ratifikasi
  Antigua dan Barbuda Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'May' is not a valid month Ratifikasi
  Argentina Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Sep 14, 1999 Ratifikasi
  Australia Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Jan 14, 1999 Ratifikasi
  Austria Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Jun 29, 1998 Ratifikasi
  Bahamas Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Jul 31, 1998 Ratifikasi
  Belanda Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Apr 12, 1999 Penerimaan
  Bangladesh Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'May' is not a valid month Sep 6, 2000 Ratifikasi
  Barbados Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Jan 26, 1999 Ratifikasi
  Belarus Sep 3, 2003 Penyetujuan
  Belgium Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Sep 4, 1998 Ratifikasi
  Belize Feb 27, 1998 Apr 23, 1998 Ratifikasi
  Benin Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Sep 25, 1998 Ratifikasi
  Bhutan Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Aug' is not a valid month Penyetujuan
  Bolivia Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Jun 9, 1998 Ratifikasi
  Bosnia dan Herzegovina Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Sep 8, 1998 Ratifikasi
  Botswana Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Mar' is not a valid month Ratifikasi
  Brazil Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Apr 30, 1999 Ratifikasi
  Brunei Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Apr 24, 2006 Ratifikasi
  Bulgaria Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Sep 4, 1998 Ratifikasi
  Burkina Faso Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Sep 16, 1998 Ratifikasi
  Burundi Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Oct' is not a valid month Ratifikasi
  Cameroon Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Sep 19, 2002 Ratifikasi
  Chad Jul 6, 1998 Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'May' is not a valid month Ratifikasi
  Chile Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Sep 10, 2001 Ratifikasi
  Colombia Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Sep 6, 2000 Ratifikasi
  Comoros Sep 19, 2002 Penyetujuan
  Congo Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'May' is not a valid month Penyetujuan
  Costa Rica Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Mar' is not a valid month Ratifikasi
  Côte d'Ivoire Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Jun 30, 2000 Ratifikasi
  Croatia Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'May' is not a valid month Ratifikasi
  Cyprus Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Jan 17, 2003 Ratifikasi
  Denmark Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Jun 8, 1998 Ratifikasi
  Djibouti Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'May' is not a valid month Ratifikasi
  Dominika Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Mar' is not a valid month Ratifikasi
  Ecuador Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Apr 29, 1999 Ratifikasi
  El Salvador Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Jan 27, 1999 Ratifikasi
  Eritrea Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Aug' is not a valid month Penyetujuan
  Estonia Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'May' is not a valid month Penyetujuan
  Habsyah Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Ratifikasi
  Fiji Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Jun 10, 1998 Ratifikasi
  Filipina Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Feb 15, 2000 Ratifikasi
  Gabon Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Sep 8, 2000 Ratifikasi
  Gambia Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Sep 23, 2002 Ratifikasi
  Ghana Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Jun 30, 2000 Ratifikasi
  Grenada Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Aug' is not a valid month Ratifikasi
  Guatemala Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Mar' is not a valid month Ratifikasi
  Guinea Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Oct' is not a valid month Ratifikasi
  Guinea Khatulistiwa Sep 16, 1998 Penyetujuan
  Guinea-Bissau Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'May' is not a valid month Ratifikasi
  Guyana Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Aug' is not a valid month Ratifikasi
  Haiti Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Feb 15, 2006 Ratifikasi
  Honduras Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Sep 24, 1998 Ratifikasi
  Hungary Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Apr 6, 1998 Ratifikasi
  Iceland Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'May' is not a valid month Ratifikasi
  Indonesia Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Feb 16, 2007 Ratifikasi
  Iraq Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Aug' is not a valid month Penyetujuan
  Ireland Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Ratifikasi
  Itali Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Apr 23, 1999 Ratifikasi
  Jamaica Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Jul 17, 1998 Ratifikasi
  Jerman Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Jul 23, 1998 Ratifikasi
  Jepun Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Sep 30, 1998 Penerimaan
  Jordan Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Aug' is not a valid month Nov 13, 1998 Ratifikasi
  Kanada Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Ratifikasi
  Kemboja Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Jul 28, 1999 Ratifikasi
  Kenya Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Jan 23, 2001 Ratifikasi
  Kepulauan Cook Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Mar' is not a valid month Ratifikasi
  Kepulauan Solomon Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Jan 26, 1999 Ratifikasi
  Kiribati Sep 7, 2000 Penyetujuan
  Kuwait Jul 31, 2007 Penyetujuan
  Latvia Jul 1, 2005 Penyetujuan
  Lesotho Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Ratifikasi
  Liberia Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Penyetujuan
  Liechtenstein Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Oct' is not a valid month Ratifikasi
  Lithuania Feb 26, 1999 Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'May' is not a valid month Ratifikasi
  Luxembourg Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Jun 14, 1999 Ratifikasi
  Makedonia Utara Sep 9, 1998 Penyetujuan
  Madagaskar Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Sep 16, 1999 Ratifikasi
  Malawi Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Aug' is not a valid month Ratifikasi
  Malaysia Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Apr 22, 1999 Ratifikasi
  Maldives Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Oct' is not a valid month Sep 7, 2000 Ratifikasi
  Mali Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Jun 2, 1998 Ratifikasi
  Malta Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'May' is not a valid month Ratifikasi
  Mauritania Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Jul 21, 2000 Ratifikasi
  Mauritius Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Ratifikasi
  Mexico Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Jun 9, 1998 Ratifikasi
  Moldova Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Sep 8, 2000 Ratifikasi
  Monaco Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Nov 17, 1998 Ratifikasi
  Montenegro Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Oct' is not a valid month Succession
  Mozambique Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Aug' is not a valid month Ratifikasi
  Namibia Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Sep 21, 1998 Ratifikasi
  Nauru Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Aug' is not a valid month Penyetujuan
  New Zealand Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Jan 27, 1999 Ratifikasi
  Nicaragua Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Nov 30, 1998 Ratifikasi
  Niger Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Mar' is not a valid month Ratifikasi
  Nigeria Sep 27, 2001 Penyetujuan
  Niue Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Apr 15, 1998 Ratifikasi
  Norway Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Jul 9, 1998 Ratifikasi
  Palau Nov 19, 2007 Penyetujuan
  Panama Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Oct' is not a valid month Ratifikasi
  Papua New Guinea Jun 28, 2004 Penyetujuan
  Paraguay Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Nov 13, 1998 Ratifikasi
  Perancis Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Jul 23, 1998 Ratifikasi
  Peru Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Jun 17, 1998 Ratifikasi
  Portugal Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Feb 19, 1999 Ratifikasi
  Qatar Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Oct' is not a valid month Ratifikasi
  Republik Afrika Tengah Nov 8, 2002 Penyetujuan
  Republik Czech Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Oct' is not a valid month Ratifikasi
  Republik Demokratik Congo Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'May' is not a valid month Penyetujuan
  Republik Dominika Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Jun 30, 2000 Ratifikasi
  Romania Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Nov 30, 2000 Ratifikasi
  Rwanda Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Jun 8, 2000 Ratifikasi
  Saint Kitts dan Nevis Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Ratifikasi
  Saint Lucia Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Apr 13, 1999 Ratifikasi
  Saint Vincent dan Kepulauan Grenadine Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Aug' is not a valid month Ratifikasi
  Samoa Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Jul 23, 1998 Ratifikasi
  San Marino Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Mar' is not a valid month Ratifikasi
  São Tomé dan Príncipe Apr 30, 1998 Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Mar' is not a valid month Ratifikasi
  Senegal Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Sep 24, 1998 Ratifikasi
  Sepanyol Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Jan 19, 1999 Ratifikasi
  Serbia Sep 18, 2003 Penyetujuan
  Seychelles Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Jun 2, 2000 Ratifikasi
  Sierra Leone Jul 29, 1998 Apr 25, 2001 Ratifikasi
  Slovakia Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Feb 25, 1999 Approval
  Slovenia Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Oct' is not a valid month Ratifikasi
  Sudan Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Oct' is not a valid month Ratifikasi
  Suriname Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'May' is not a valid month Ratifikasi
  Eswatini Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Ratifikasi
  Sweden Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Nov 30, 1998 Ratifikasi
  Switzerland Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Mar' is not a valid month Ratifikasi
  Tajikistan Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Oct' is not a valid month Penyetujuan
Takhta Suci Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Feb 17, 1998 Ratifikasi
  Tanjung Verde Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'May' is not a valid month Ratifikasi
  Tanzania Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Nov 13, 2000 Ratifikasi
  Thailand Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Nov 27, 1998 Ratifikasi
  Timor-Leste Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'May' is not a valid month Penyetujuan
  Togo Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Mar' is not a valid month Ratifikasi
  Trinidad dan Tobago Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Apr 27, 1998 Ratifikasi
  Tunisia Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Jul 9, 1999 Ratifikasi
  Turki Sep 25, 2003 Penyetujuan
  Turkmenistan Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Jan 19, 1998 Ratifikasi
  Uganda Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Feb 25, 1999 Ratifikasi
  Ukraine Feb 24, 1999 Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Ratifikasi
  United Kingdom Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Jul 31, 1998 Ratifikasi
  Uruguay Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Jun 7, 2001 Ratifikasi
  Vanuatu Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Sep 16, 2005 Ratifikasi
  Venezuela Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Apr 14, 1999 Ratifikasi
  Yaman Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Sep 1, 1998 Ratifikasi
  Yunani Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Sep 25, 2003 Ratifikasi
  Zambia Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Feb 23, 2001 Ratifikasi
  Zimbabwe Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month Jun 18, 1998 Ratifikasi

Negara yang menandatangani tetapi belum meratifikasiSunting

State Signed
  Kepulauan Marshall Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month
  Poland Error in Template:Date table sorting: 'Dec' is not a valid month

RujukanSunting

Pautan luarSunting